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JAPAN 

AS WE SAW IT 



By M .BICKERSTETH 



WITH A PREFACE BY THE 

BISHOP OF EXETER 



ILLUSTRATED ^ ^ jJ^T^ Q 



LONDON 
SAMPSON LOW, MARSTON, AND COMPANY 

LIMITED 

&U £9uu£tan'£ l&au&e 
Fetter Lane, Fleet Street, E.C. 

NEW YOEK 

CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS 

743 & 745, Broadway 

1893 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/japanaswesawitOObick 



( v ) 



PREFACE. 

" Japan as we saw it " is, I venture to think, a happy 
title for these brief sketches by my daughter, of our 
eight weeks' sojourn in the Mikado's Empire. They 
do not claim in any way to be a tourist's handbook. 
They are only word-photographs, somewhat loosely 
grouped together, of what we were permitted to see 
under the exceptionally favourable guidance of my 
son, the Church of England Bishop there, and of the 
impressions indelibly stamped on our memory while 
passing through that fascinating land, and freely 
mingling with cultured Japanese society. And they 
must only be accepted as samples of countless things 
we did not see. 

I need hardly say it was the missionary aspect of 
that marvellous revolution of thought now drawing 
Japan year by year into closer communion with 
Christian lands, which especially, though not ex- 
clusively, engrossed our attention. I should not 
have thought it right to leave my diocese for twenty 
weeks, if those who knew Japan best had not assured 
me that the country was passing through such a crisis 
as seldom occurs in the history of nations ; that 



VI PREFACE. 

Buddhism, if not utterly effete, was fast losing its 
grasp upon the conscience of the educated classes ; 
that thoughtful students, to be numbered by tens 
of thousands, were oscillating between infidelity and 
Christianity ; that, while the advocates of European 
Agnosticism were actively sowing seeds of doubt, the 
success of the ambassadors of the Cross had been far 
beyond anything we could have anticipated from the 
slender efforts as yet put forth by Christian lands ; 
and that any sympathy shown by England's Church 
at this epoch would strengthen the hands of those 
who were bearing the burden and heat of the day. 

I can truly bear witness that " Japan as we saw 
it" did not belie these assurances. It appeared to 
me the very ideal of a noble country awaiting and 
attracting missionary enterprise, and worthy of the 
utmost efforts of the Church of Christ. For though 
Japan is small compared with its gigantic neighbours, 
India and China, it is a large empire in itself. Its 
area exceeds that of Great Britain and Ireland. Its 
population is more than forty million souls. And if 
I may venture to repeat words I used on my return 
when pleading its cause before the Church Missionary 
Society, — 

" If you had been asked to sketch an ideal land 
most suitable for Christian Missions, and when itself 
Christianized most suited for evangelistic work among 
the nations of the far East, what, I ask, would be the 



PREFACE. Vll 

special characteristics of the land and people that you 
would have desired? Perhaps, first, as Englishmen 
or Irishmen, you would have said, c Give us islands, 
inseparably and for ever united ; give us islands which 
can hold their sea-girt independence, and yet near 
enough to the mainland to exert influence there.' 
Such is Japan — the Land of the Rising Sun. ' Give 
us a hardy race, not untrained in w T ar by land and 
sea ; for a nation of soldiers, when won for Christ, 
rights best under the banner of the Cross — for we are 
of the Church militant here on earth : give us brave 
men ; ' and such are the descendants of the old 
Daimios and two-sworded Samurai of Japan. ' Give 
us an industrial race, not idlers nor loungers, ener- 
vated by a luxurious climate, but men who delight in 
toil, laborious husbandmen, persevering craftsmen, 
shrewd men of business ; ' and such are the Japanese 
agriculturists, who win two harvests a year from their 
grateful soil ; such are the handicraftsmen there, 
whose work is the envy of Western lands ; such are 
the merchants, who hold their own with us in 
commerce. ' Give us men of culture, with noble 
traditions, but not so wedded to the past that they 
will not grasp the present and salute the future ; ' and 
such are the quick-witted myriad-minded Japanese, 
who with a marvellous power of imitation ever some- 
how contrive to engraft their own specialities upon 
those of Western lands. Witness their Constitu- 



Vlll PREFACE. 

tion, their Parliament, their 30,000 schools in active 
operation ; witness their museums and hospitals ; 
witness their colleges and universities. 'But/ you 
would also have said, ' give us a race whose women 
are homespun and refined, courteous and winsome, 
not tottering on tortured feet, not immured in zenanas 
and harems, but who freely mingle in social life, and 
adorn all they touch ; ' and such, without controversy, 
are the women of Japan. Above all, ' Give us a 
reverent and a religious people, who yet are conscious 
that the religion of their fathers is unsatisfying and 
unreal, and who are therefore ready to welcome the 
Christ of God ; ' and such are the thoughtful races of 
Japan. 

" The Gospel has dawned there. Forty years ago 
the gates were shut, and locked, and barred. We 
owe much to America, for in 1852 Commodore Perry 
first won an entrance into Japan. Some years after- 
wards Lord Elgin signed the Treaty of Yeddo 
between Great Britain and Japan. In 1868 came the 
marvellous Eevolution, the feudalism of 700 years 
being abolished, and the Mikado being enthroned in 
the reality of power. That same year an anonymous 
donor sent £4,000 to the Church Missionary Society 
for work in Japan, and the next year the Eev. George 
Ensor, who was to Japan what Epaphras was to 
Colosse, went forth in Christ's name. 

" The voice to us is, Go forward ! There is very 



PREFACE. IX 

much land to be possessed, but we are well able to 
overcome it, and, God helping us, we will. What 
will conquer ? Not Agnosticism, with its heartless 
no-creed ; not Deism, with its icy distance betwixt 
God and Man ; not Eoman superstition, with its 
Mariolatry and priestcraft ; not Plymouthism, that 
molluscous kind of Christianity with no backbone to 
it ; not the repellent doctrine of limited redemp- 
tion ; not that hideous nightmare of annihilation, 
nor the baseless dream of Universalism : — but the 
good old faith of the everlasting Gospel on Bible 
foundations and Apostolic lines. The order-loving 
Japanese reverence our ritual. 

" At first our army of evangelists must be officered 
by English or American leaders, but when the time 
has fully come these will be ready to yield their 
posts to natives — Japanese deacons, and priests, and 
bishops ; and that will be, as my son said to me, the 
happiest euthanasia of Western Missions, when Japan 
is Christian from shore to shore. We ought, we can, 
and, by God's grace, we will ; only we must not offer 
to God that which costs us little or nothing. The 
Master does not degrade us by asking cheap service at 
our hands. Fifty more men and women are sorely 
needed in the next two years. Who is willing to 
consecrate his service or hers to God ? We trust in 
no arm of flesh ; nothing can or will prevail but a 
masculine faith in God ; nothing but the old heroism 
of primitive Christianity ; nothing but the story of the 



X PREFACE. 

Cross, and the omnipotent grace of the Holy Spirit of 
God. In hoc signo vinces, et in ceternum laus Deo!' 

I asked one Japanese gentleman who knew his 
country well, whether he thought if by any political 
revolution or renaissance of Buddhism, Christianity 
was no longer tolerated, and Christian converts were 
outlawed and persecuted, the avowed belief of the 
Gospel would be as nearly crushed as Eoman 
Catholicism was after the times of Francis Xavier. 
He answered without hesitation that it was utterly 
impossible, for the Faith had now gripped the hearts 
of his fellow-countrymen, and the Word of God was 
in their hands. So Dr. Griffin, the author of " The 
Mikado's Empire," quotes and fully endorses the 
words : " The publication of the Bible in Japanese 
was like building a railway through the national 
intellect." 

I need add no more, in introducing this book to 
the kind indulgence of its readers, than to affirm my 
unshaken conviction that Japan will become Christian, 
if not in my lifetime, in the lifetime of my children, 
and that Japan won for Christ will be to the main- 
land of the far East what England is to Europe — the 
fortress of freedom, the asylum of the oppressed, the 
herald of the Sun of Eighteousness arising with 
healing in His wings. 

E. H. EXON 

The Palace, Exeter, 

February 14, 1893. 



( xi ) 



CONTENTS. 



Preface. By the Rt. Rev. Lord Bishop of Exeter . Page v 
CHAPTER I. 

FROM LIVERPOOL TO YOKOHAMA. 

Liverpool to Quebec — Niagara — The Canadian Lakes — The 

Rocky Mountains — Vancouver to Yokohama . . 1 

CHAPTER II. 

TOKYO. 

The City of Tokyo — S. Andrew's House — S. Hilda's Mission 
— Ushigome Church — Kyobashi Dispensary — The Shiba 
Temples — Graveyard of the Forty-seven Ronins — First 
Sunday in Tokyo .... 15 

CHAPTER III. 

NIKKO AND IKAO. 

Nikko — Temple of Iyeyasu — Lake Chusenji — A Night in 
a Japanese Inn — Ikao — The Valley of Haruna — A 
Shinto Temple — The Highroad to Takasaki . . 40 

CHAPTER IV. 

LIFE m THE GREAT CAPITAL. 

The Tokyo Kwankoba — The Greek Cathedral — Shopping in 
the Ginza — The Imperial Gardens — Kyobashi Church 
— S. Andrew's Mission — Ueno Park and Museum — Mr. 
Kirkes' At Home — The Cha No Yu, or Ceremonial 
Tea-drinking— S. Hilda's School . . . . 64 



Xll CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER Y. 

FURTHER JOTTINGS FROM OUR TOKYO JOURNALS. 

Japanese Photographs — The Keiogijiku College — The 
Imperial University — A Japanese Dinner-Party — Uni- 
tarianism in Japan — The Sensoji Temple — Last day in 
Tokyo Page 93 

CHAPTER VI. 

MIYANOSHITA AND NAGOYA. 

The Church in Japan — Miyanoshita — Mount Fuji — Hakone 
— Ojigoku — Nagoya — Japanese Confirmation — The 
Castle of Nagoya — Cloisonne-enamel — The Christian 
Converts of Nagoya . . . . . .114 

CHAPTER VII. 

KYOTO. 

A Buddhist Graveyard — New Buddhist Temple — The 
Imperial Garden— The Rapids of the Katsuragawa — 
Otsu and Lake Biwa — The Chion-in Temple — The 
Great Buddha— The Temple of the 33,333 Images of 
Kwannon, the Goddess of Mercy . . . .141 

CHAPTER VIII. 

OSAKA. 

A Sunday at Osaka — Bishop Poole's Girls' School — A Picnic 

atMino 157 

CHAPTER IX. 

THE GREAT EARTHQUAKE. 

The Great Earthquake — Narrow Escape of the Bishop of 
Exeter and Mrs. Bickersteth — Varied Experiences of 



CONTENTS. Xlll 

the Osaka Mission — Boys' High School, Osaka — A 
Japanese Reception ..... Page 166 

CHAPTER X. 

THE "HYOGO NEWS" ON THE EARTHQUAKE. 

Terrible Loss of Life and Property in the Earthquake — 
Letters from Gifn and Ogaki — S. Hilda's Mission at 
Work among the Sufferers . . . . .180 

CHAPTER XL 

NARA, OR AN ANCIENT JAPANESE CAPITAL. 

The Temples of Kara — Shinto Priests — The Great Dai 

Butsu— Buddhist Bells 230 

CHAPTER XII. 

FUKUYAMA. 

The Mission Church in Fukuyama — Laying of Foundation 
Stone by the Bishop of Exeter — Continued Shocks of 
Earthquake at Osaka . . . . . .238 

CHAPTER XIII. 

KOBE AND THE INLAND SEA. 

All Saints' Day at Kobe — Thanksgiving Service — The 
Emperor's Birthday — Arima — Through the Inland Sea 
in the Kobe Maru. ...... 244 

CHAPTER XIV. 

FUKUOKA AND OYAMADA. 

The Island of Kiushiu — Fukuoka — A Sunday at Fukuoka 
— Oyamada, or the Christian Village — Kurume — The 
polite Policeman . . . . . . .259 



XIV CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER XV. 

KUMAMOTO AND ASO SAN. 

The Old Castle — A Japanese Giant — Reception by Christian 
Converts — The Great Volcano — A Japanese Connoisseur 
in china — The Leper Temple — Letter to the " Times " 
by the Bishop of Exeter .... Page 272 

CHAPTER XVI. 

JAPANESE FUNERALS. 

A Shinto Funeral — A Buddhist Funeral — The Paradise of 
Buddhism — Japanese Annual Festival in Memory of the 
Dead . 293 

CHAPTER XVJI. 

LAST DAYS IN JAPAN. 

Japanese Inn at Ureshino — Sonogi and Tokitsu Water — 

Nagasaki — Farewell to Japan ..... 303 

CHAPTER XVIII. 

HOMEWARD BOUND. 

Hong-Kong — A Day in Canton — Singapore — Colombo — 

Pleasant Days in the Valetta — Home . . .313 

Appendices 331 

Index 343 



( XV 



LIST OF ILLTJSTBATIONS. 



PAGE 

The Bishop of Exetek and Pakty . . . Frontispiece 
S. Hilda's Mission, Tokyo . . . . .18 

Japanese Samurai, oe Two-Sworded Warrior . . 29 
Grave of the Forty-seven Eonins, Tokyo .. . 35 
Courtyard in Iyeyasu's Temple, Nikko ... 43 
From a Photograph of Car vino at Nikko . .45 
Gateway in Iyeyasu's Temple, Nikko ... 47 
Shinto Shrine, Iyeyasu's Temple, Nikko . . .57 
Japanese Tournament in the Old Days . . .05 
Imperial Gardens, Tokyo. . . . . . (59 

Image of Buddha, in Ueno Park, Tokyo . . .77 
From a Photograph of Wood-carving at Nikko . 94 
Avenue of Cherry Trees in Ueno Park, Tokyo . 97 

Japanese Fish Merchant 10G 

Mount Fuji n7 

Avenue of Cryptomeria, Leading to Nikko . . 123 
Edw. Bickersteth, Bishop of Japan . . .129 

Nagoya Castle 133 

Gate of Hongwanji Temple, Kyoto . . . .143 
Temple of Kwannon, Kyoto 
Portrait of the Bishop of Exeter . 
Archdeacon Warren's Drawing-room 
Earthquake .... 



155 

. To face p. 1G1 
AFTER the 

. 1C» 



XVI 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Interior of Mill at Osaka after the Earthquake 

Street in Ogaki after the Earthquake . 

Nagarawa Bridge after the Earthquake 

Temple at Gifu after the Earthquake 

Japanese Children . 

glfu after the earthquake 

Jinriksha Runner . 

Shinto Priests and Shrine 

Japanese Broom Merchant 

Japanese Fishing Boat . 

Silk-spinning . 

A Merchant in the Old Days of Japan 

Japanese Tea-house. 

Japanese Bed . 

A Blind Shampooer . 

Japanese Pilgrims . 



PAGE 

175 
189 
198 
203 
214 
219 
229 
233 
240 
255 
263 
275 
279 
304 
306 
330 




& Rivington, limit 



JAPAN AS WE SAW IT 



CHAPTER I. 

FROM LIVERPOOL TO YOKOHAMA. 

A voyage round the world and a visit to the Mikado's 
Empire ! Even in these days of incessant travelling, 
such a tour is a marked event in any life, and to 
us it possessed from the first a peculiar interest, for 
circumstances had already combined to forge many 
close links between us and Japan, 

Through my eldest brother, who had been appointed 
its second Missionary Bishop in 1886, we had received 
many interesting details regarding the Japanese 
people, their life and their thought, until we already 
held, as it were, the fragments of a more or less 
perfect mosaic in our hands, which only needed 
"Japan as we saw it" to be fitted into a living 
whole. 

During 1888 my brother visited England for a 
few months, in order to attend the Pan-Anglican 
Conference of Bishops at Lambeth in July of that 

B 
9| 



2 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

year. He returned to Japan in October, and we did 
not expect to see him again until 1893, when his 
next English furlough would be due. But during 
1890 he proposed to my father that they should meet 
in Canada for a summer holiday, and this suggested 
the idea that they might meet in Japan itself. My 
father would thus see not only him but his work ; 
and after telling the Japanese of the warm interest 
felt in their country by the Church at home, could 
bring word to England of the growing needs of the 
Church in Japan. 

Many difficulties seemed to stand in the way, 
but one by one they disappeared, and by the 
summer of 1891 every arrangement had been 
made. My father was able to leave his Diocese in 
charge of Bishop Barry, and, accompanied by Mrs. 
Bickers teth and myself, he sailed for Japan on the 
13th of August from Liverpool. He intended, all 
being well, to take us by the Canadian Pacific route, 
and, after spending nearly eight weeks in Japan, to 
return via India, so as to avoid midwinter on the 
Atlantic, and complete our tour round the world. 

The voyage across the Atlantic in the Parisian, 
the finest steamer of the Allan Line, was very 
favourable, and the 22nd of August found us safely 
anchored in the harbour of Quebec. 

The weather was magnificent, and we shall never 
forget the entrance to the Biver St. Lawrence. It is 



FROM LIVERPOOL TO YOKOHAMA. 3 

crowded with islands, from tiny brown rocks just 
peeping above the water to great islands like that of 
Orient, twenty-six miles long. On one side rose the 
beautiful range of the Laurentian Mountains, and 
on the other lay the closely-packed villages of the 
French Canadian population, grouped round quaint 
little churches with sharply-pointed tin steeples. 

We had several hours in Quebec, and much 
admired the old city, with its fine citadel and harbour, 
and the characteristically French groups in its streets, 
which seemed like a bit of Normandy transferred to 
America. 

The Parisian sailed for Montreal in the after- 
noon, and arrived on Sunday the 23rd. By the 
advice of her courteous captain (Captain Kitchie) we 
decided to visit Niagara, instead of going at once to 
the Canadian lakes. After one night in Montreal, 
we went on to Toronto, and thence to Niagara. 

We drove at once to the Clifton House, on the Cana- 
dian side, and, after luncheon, walked out to see the 
Falls. My father had been there in 1 8 70, and knew how 
much more impressive they are when seen gradually. 
So we wandered along the Canadian side for nearly 
a mile, with the American Falls full in view on our 
left, singularly beautiful in themselves, but sadly 
spoiled by an enormous hotel built close beside them, 
not to mention a paper factory, with its usual tall, 
black chimney. But when we arrived at the Horse- 



4 JAFAN AS WE SAW IT. 

shoe Falls, all was different. No words could ever 
really describe them, but perhaps what strikes one 
most is the majesty of so enormous a volume of 
water, and the fairy-like beauty of the spray, which 
rose in a cloud higher than the Fall itself. No 
photograph or painting could ever give this sense 
of overwhelming power, yet of delicate and all-per- 
vading movement. We sat, and walked to various 
points of view, and tried to drink in the greys and 
greens of the water and the dazzling white of the 
foam, until the beauty grew upon us, almost into us, 
just as when we studied Eaphael's Transfiguration at 
Eome. A brilliant rainbow overshadowed the Fall, 
obscured now and then by the mist-like spray, and 
then darting up again like a sky-rocket, and forming 
a perfect arch once more. The commissionnaire in 
charge told us we might have come a thousand times 
and not seen such colouring or so perfect an outline, 
and he had known the Falls for forty-six years. So 
much depends on the wind, atmosphere, and sunshine, 
and all on this day were in our favour. We returned 
to our hotel feeling richer for life. 

The following day we returned to Toronto, and 
on the 27th went to Owen Sound, on Lake Huron, 
where we were to take the steamer for Fort William, 
on the Canadian Pacific Eailway. By this means we 
substituted a pleasant trip on the Canadian lakes 
for a somewhat uninteresting railway journey of a 



FROM LIVERPOOL TO YOKOHAMA. 5 

thousand miles. The Manitoba was 300 feet long, 
with a fine saloon and comfortable cabins. 

It was most difficult to believe we were not at sea. 
We were often out of sight of land, and it was very 
rough during the night. The next morning we passed 
a " boom," or floating mass of pine logs, encircled by 
a double row of trunks bound together by iron chains. 
It was a quarter of a mile long, and towed by two 
steamers. 

The next excitement was a whale-back boat, one 
of the new freight steamers of the future. It was 
shaped like a whale, and had no decks, sails, or 
masts, but its ugly iron case was propelled through 
the water by powerful driving gear, and had a small 
cabin supported on four strong stanchions at one 
end. Air was forced below by fans, and these 
steamers can go through the waves in a rough sea 
and carry 47,000 bushels of wheat. Midday brought 
us to Saulte Ste. Marie, a typical Canadian town, 
where we passed through a fine steam lock to the 
level of Lake Superior. The scene from deck afforded 
a good instance of how rapidly civilisation is pene- 
trating into the " Wild West." The streets of Saulte 
Ste. Marie were already provided with electric cars, 
and the long line of the Canadian Pacific with a 
movable bridge worked by steam, stretched on either 
side of the little town. A second lock was in course 
of preparation, and a whale-back boat was waiting 



6 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

to descend from Lake Superior. Modern life in its 
fullest sense seemed before us, yet it certainly lacked 
its usual entourage in the Old World. Within a 
quarter of a mile stretched the famous backwoods, 
and, nearer still, an Indian was quietly paddling his 
canoe down the rapids, as if no nineteenth century had 
intervened to rouse his home from its former repose. 

The next day found us safely settled in the 
Canadian Pacific Eailway cars and en route for Banff, 
where we were to meet my brother. The sleeping- 
cars, which turn into comfortable drawing-rooms 
during the day, made our home for the next two and 
a half days ; but, until the Kocky Mountains are 
reached, the journey is not exciting, and we were by 
no means sorry when, early on the morning of the 
1st of September, we steamed into the little station 
at Banff. The prairies and endless wheat fields, with 
furrows perhaps four miles long, grow wearisome, hour 
after hour, though now and then the line passes 
through picturesque Indian settlements, and the sun- 
sets were always beautiful. 

My brother was waiting for us on the platform at 
Banff, a pretty mountain village, and we were relieved 
to find him looking fairly well, as letters at Montreal 
had told us of his dangerous illness at Tokyo in July, 
through which the Eev. A. King (S. Andrew's 
Mission) and Dr. Howard, an English traveller in 
Japan, had nursed him with unwearied devotion. 



FROM LIVERPOOL TO YOKOHAMA. 7 

We spent four quiet days together at Banff, and 
by the 5th felt quite ready to resume our journey 
towards Vancouver. We shall never forget the 
beauty and excitement of the journey to Glacier 
House, where we intended to stay for the Sunday. 
Leaving Banff very early, we spent many hours in 
the " observation car," a carriage about eighty feet 
long, with unglazed windows that allowed an almost 
uninterrupted view of the scenery. Higher and 
higher we climbed, an engine at either end of the 
train, and the curves of the line so extraordinary that 
at times they formed a perfect S, and we could see 
an engine out of either window at the same moment. 
Now we were a thousand feet above a mountain 
torrent, " clinging to the side," as the guide-book 
would say, and now we passed close beneath glorious 
snow mountains, or by quiet glacier lakes, or threaded 
our way through the Kicking Horse Pass, or read 
" The Great Divide" carved in huge wooden letters 
on the watershed of the Rockies. After a rapid 
descent to the plain, we passed along the banks of the 
Columbia River, and then be^an to climb the ran^e of 
the Selkirks, which are in some ways even more beau- 
tiful than the Rockies. Late in the afternoon we 
reached Glacier House, and spent a quiet Sunday at 
the pretty station hotel, at present the only house in 
the valley. It was built in a clearing in the great 
pine forest, and from outside its door we could see on 



8 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

one side the great glacier of the Selkirks and Mt. Sir 
Donald, and on the other the snowy peaks of the 
Hermit range. We visited the glacier next day, and 
standing at the edge the ice rose forty feet above us, 
deep blue in colour and clear as water. 

From Glacier House we had a day and a half's 
journey to Vancouver. The scenery was again 
extremely fine, though we passed many of the most 
noted places at night, as our train was seven hours 
late. Such a delay sounds alarming ; but on the 
C. P. E. only one train starts east and another west 
each day, and it is hardly surprising if they lose 
as many hours during a journey of 3,000 miles as an 
ordinary train would lose minutes in one of three 
hundred. 

Vancouver, which five years ago was " solid bush," 
is now a bright, well-planned city, with broad streets 
and electric cars, and every modern convenience 
except good footpaths. The energetic vicar, Mr. 
Fiennes-Clinton, of S. Luke's Church, claimed my 
father and brother at once for a missionary meeting, 
and Sister Frances, a fellow-passenger on the 
Parisian, gave us a warm welcome the next day at 
the Church House, where she and other ladies con- 
duct a hospital and other self-supporting work among 
the numerous emigrants and settlers of Vancouver. 

At 5 p.m. on September 9th we went on board the 
Empress of Japan (Captain Lee), the fine vessel 



FROM LIVERPOOL TO YOKOHAMA. 9 

in which my brother had just crossed the Pacific. It 
is 4,500 miles from Yokohama to Vancouver ; but in 
this voyage the Empress of Japan "had beaten the 
record," and accomplished the whole distance in 
about ten days and a half, so that the mail she 
carried arrived in London twenty- one days after it 
left Yokohama. 

The return voyage took thirteen days, but we 
only kept up an average daily run of 350 miles, 
and Could easily have exceeded it by a greater ex- 
penditure of coal. We were much impressed by the 
loneliness of the Pacific Ocean. My father noticed 
a sail on the horizon on September 10th, but this 
proved to be our last sight of any fellow- voyagers until 
we arrived at Yokohama on the 23rd. However, the 
days passed quickly. The ship was crowded with 
passengers, of whom the greater number were going 
to China ; but others, like ourselves, Colonel and Mrs. 
Howard Vincent, Mr. and Mrs. Walters (of Yoko- 
hama), and various members of the missions at Tokyo, 
were returning to Japan, or expected to make a short 
visit there. The captain gave his sanction to daily 
morning prayer in the music saloon, and each Sunday 
my father celebrated Holy Communion at 8 a.m., and 
we had a crowded morning and evening service in 
the large dining saloon. 

As we went further north the weather became 
bitterly cold, and on the 17th we were within sixty 



10 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

miles of the Aleutian Islands, and saw Mt. Baker, a 
dazzling cone of snow rising out of the water. On 
the 16th we crossed the meridian line, and therefore 
lost the day, excepting the few hours before 8 a.m. 
It did not make much difference to us, who were sail- 
ing west, but passengers to America gain an extra 
day, and are often perplexed to know what to do 
with a double New Year or Easter. 

On the 22nd we passed through the edge of a ty- 
phoon. The heat became most oppressive, the baro- 
meter fell rapidly, and rain came down in torrents. 
The wind blew in sudden squalls, and from time to 
time a wave dashed over the ship, and the passengers 
indulged in a good many gloomy speculations as to 
how even an Empress would stand a real typhoon. 
But to the relief of all, the wind veered suddenly to 
the north. We had passed through the circle of the 
typhoon, and all danger was soon over. 

The sea was very rough all day, and we admired 
the energy of a few passengers who got up a dance 
on the quarter-deck at night, in spite of the rolling 
which caused them to waltz in a giddy fashion against 
the bulwarks. 

At 8 p.m. we all crowded to the side to see the 
light of Cape Inobouye (Howling Dog Promontory), 
which, as it flashed over the dark waters, told us that 
the long voyage across the Pacific was nearly over, 
and Japan would greet us the following morning. 



FROM LIVERPOOL TO YOKOHAMA. 11 

Sept 23rd. — The 23rd was a dull rainy day, but 
we anchored in Yokohama, harbour by 7 a.m., and 
from that moment the fun began. Dozens of " sam- 
pans " (canoes) surrounded the Empress, full of the 
quaintest Japanese, who crowded to the ship's side 
and climbed up the rope-ladder, eager to help in the 
unloading. Some were extremely lightly clothed, 
and others wore long dressing-gowns of Liberty blue 
cotton, but all looked in the best of tempers, and it 
was quite difficult to withdraw our heads from the 
port-holes in order to attend to the rescue of our 
baggage from the hold. This proved to be a serious 
task, but at last it was safely accomplished, and, by 
the kindness of Mr. Walters, of Yokohama, we went 
ashore in the consul's boat. It was not unlike a 
gondola in shape, and the sailors at either end 
pulled a clumsy oar and gently crooned to themselves 
meanwhile. We landed a few minutes after 9 a.m., 
and found ourselves at once in the hands of the 
neatest set of little Japanese custom-house officers. 
We had nothing contraband in our boxes ; so after 
a rapid examination they were passed without any 
difficulty, except indeed, one tiny pot of " pomade 
divine," sealed with red wax, which, until ex- 
planations were given, was evidently considered 
to contain dynamite at the very least, It was a 
thrilling moment — that landing in Japan — in spite of 
all the outside details of luggage, etc., that usually 



12 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

interfere with thrilling moments in long journeys, 
and we all felt it to be so. 

Yokohama, like Vancouver, is a very recent creation, 
but it has some handsome buildings in foreign style, 
and the motley crowd in the streets and the Japanese 
shops fascinated us at once. We lunched at the Club 
hotel, and soon afterwards seven jinrikshas drew up to 
the door, and away we rushed to the railway station, 
from which an hour's journey would take us to Tokyo. 
A first ride in a jinriksha — it is a pleasure never to 
be forgotten ! The return to a perambulator — for such 
it truly is — brings an almost childish sense of enjoy- 
ment, and when you substitute carriage shafts for the 
front wheel, and a small merry-faced Japanese for an 
English nursery -maid, the illusion is complete ! The 
men were dressed in dark blue cotton and wore big 
mushroom hats ; they splashed gaily in and out of 
the puddles, and, as they hurried round the corners, 
uttered sharp cries of warning to the foot-passengers 
and other jinriksha men in the way. 

Arrived at the station a new group of Japanese 
attracted our attention every moment. Here a woman 
shuffled along in wooden clogs, carrying her baby on 
her back, and close beside her stood a clerk or student, 
in the usual blue or grey kimono (or dressing-gown), 
but with a flannel shirt, no necktie, and his feet in 
side-spring boots ! We had scarcely realised how all 
ordinary Japanese would use wooden clogs (geta). 



FROM LIVERPOOL TO YOKOHAMA. 13 

Their feet are covered with socks (tabi), made of strong 
white cotton material, and with a division for the great 
toe, through which the thong is passed that keeps on 
the clog. How it keeps it on, it is difficult for English 
people to understand ; but, of course, the Japanese 
shuffle along, and do not run, or, if obliged to run, they 
either go barefoot or use straw sandals, or dark blue 
tabi. All the grown-up women (about twenty years 
of age and upwards) wear dark coloured kimonos, with 
a purple or striped sash, embroidered often with the 
family crest ; but the children and girls wear brilliant 
colours, scarlet, blue and yellow, and reminded us 
often of Italians by their graceful picturesqueness. 
With a few slight, but important, modifications the 
Japanese national costume would be perfect, and it is 
much to be hoped that the good sense of the people 
will discover this. 

We got into the train and started in high spirits 
for Tokyo. From the windows we could notice the 
carefully cultivated fields of rice and maize, etc., and 
the peasants in their curious straw rain cloaks and 
paper umbrellas. One could not resist the feeling 
that all the fire-places in Japan had been ransacked 
for an emergency, rather than the English use of um- 
brellas in fire-places being the anomaly ! The journey 
was all too short before we reached the Shimbashi 
station at Tokyo. Bishop Williams, Mrs. Kirkes, and 
several Japanese friends were waiting there to greet 



14 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

us, with much bowing and many kind words of 
welcome to Japan. A little English bow looked cold 
and ineffective indeed by those of the Japanese, 
and we tried hard daily to improve into the correct 
national style, bending nearly double in ordinary 
interviews, and falling on our faces on special occa- 
sions. 



( 15 ) 



CHAPTEK II. 

TOKYO. 

Tokyo (formerly Yedo), the capital of Japan, is a 
city of over a million inhabitants, built on the 
shores of the Bay of Tokyo, with Yokohama, eighteen 
miles distant, as its port. It is popularly supposed 
to cover an area of a hundred square miles ; but its 
narrow streets and low, nearly flat-roofed, houses pre- 
vent it from looking particularly impressive, unless 
from some exceptionally good standpoint, such as the 
dome of the Greek Cathedral, from which you can 
distinguish the grand sweeping roofs of the temples, 
and form some idea of the strange intermingling of 
native and foreign architecture, and the dense masses 
of population crowded into the great modern capital 
of the Mikado's Empire. It is the centre of govern- 
ment, and of the University, and contains many famous 
schools, which attract no less than 100,000 students 
from all parts of the Empire. The Mikado makes it 
his home for the greater part of the year, and lives in 
a palace built in the shape of a Shinto temple, thus 
recalling the days when every loyal Japanese owned 
him to be divine. It is in the fullest sense the centre 



16 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

of the Empire, and any work that is intended to 
attain ultimately a national influence must begin in 
Tokyo. 

For the last few years my brother, the Bishop in 
Japan, has lived in Shiba, one of the healthiest districts 
of the city, in a house which he built as a centre for 
his own work and for that of S. Andrew's University 
Mission, founded by him in 1887,* to gain all possible 
influence among the educated classes of the capital, 
and to train the native clergy of the Church in Japan. 
The house is wooden, built in foreign (European) 
style, in the grounds of S. Andrew's Church (S.P.G.). 
Shortly before our arrival a wing had been added, 
which connected it with the Theological College, and 
made the group of Mission buildings both prominent 
and attractive. 

On our arrival at Tokyo on September 23rd, we 
drove up rapidly from Shimbashi station, and found 
several members of the Mission (Mr. Cholmondeley, 
Mr. Freese, and Mr. Gardner), and the Japanese 
students of the Divinity School, grouped round the 
door to welcome us. My brother showed us over the 
various rooms, which brought back many recollections 
of his former homes at Cambridge, Delhi, and Fram- 
lingham. They are not large, but well-planned, with 
a dining-room on the right and a library on the left of 
the entrance hall. The library has folding-doors 
* See Note C. 



TOKYO. 17 

opening into the drawing-room, and both rooms look 
on the garden and S. Andrew's Church. The study is 
upstairs, and the little private Chapel is close to the 
dining-room. His servants are Japanese, all men 
except the cook's wife, who was introduced to me as I 
sat in his study that evening. At first I could not see 
her, but at last I discovered her, prostrate at my feet 
— a great surprise to me then, though a little later 
on I felt quite at home with Japanese customs. 

At five o'clock we attended Evensong in S. Andrew's 
Church, and thanksgivings were offered for our safe 
journey from England. After dinner my brother 
took me to S. Hilda's Mission House, where the 
members, Miss Thornton, Nurse Grace, and Miss 
Snowden, were waiting to receive me with the warmest 
of welcomes.* My father and Mrs. Bickersteth stayed 
at S. Andrew's House all the while we were in Tokyo, 
but for ten days of our visit I slept at S. Hilda's 
House. Both Missions are supported by the mission- 
ary Guild of S. Paul,f and being its secretary, I was 
anxious to see what I could of their work. 

I was in time for Compline that night in S. Hilda's 
Chapel, and shall never forget how it touched me to 
notice the deep, earnest reverence of the Japanese 
workers and pupils of the Mission, as they repeated 
the Creed, and to realise that their knowledge was the 

* S. Hilda's Community Mission was founded by the Bishop 
at the same time as S. Andrew's Mission, 1887. — See Note C. 
t See Note B. 

C 



18 



JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 



outcome of the work of our Guild in England. It 
seemed a fitting close to our first day in Tokyo. 




NDRSE GRACE. MISS TKOBNTON. MISS BULLOCK. 

S. HILDA'S MISSION, TOKYO. 



MISS M. SNOWDEN. 



Sept. 29. — My father came early next morning to 
inspect the various branches of S. Hilda's Mission, 



TOKYO. 19 

which include a School, Hospital, and Home for train- 
ing native mission women. He writes in his diary : 
" We walked to S. Hilda's and saw all over that ex- 
cellently appointed home ; everything is contrived for 
patient practical work." A few words may enable our 
readers to follow him in his visit. 

S. Hilda's House is built in a district of Tokyo 
called Azabu (the capital being divided into districts 
exactly corresponding to the Kensington, West- 
minster, etc., of London), and is about a quarter of 
a mile from S. Andrew's Church and Mission House. 
It is a large house, built entirely of wood, in foreign 
style, and stands in an extensive garden entered from 
a quiet road by a wooden gateway, on which the 
name of the school is painted in Japanese characters. 

Passing a little lodge, the home of the gardener, 
you go up a narrow carriage drive with the hospital 
on your left, and the Home for Mission Women just 
beyond it, and your jinriksha draws up before the 
hall-door of the Mission House. There are pretty 
flowering shrubs and flower beds behind you, 
the Mission ladies being deeply interested in their 
garden. Entering the hall you are in the centre of 
the house, and see a pretty spiral staircase of 
polished Japanese wood. You must then look into 
a little waiting-room for Japanese teachers, and visit, 
still further on your left, the dining-room, used by 
the junior members of the Mission as a sitting- 

C 2 



20 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

room. The large and pretty drawing-room at the 
back of the house opens into the verandah and 
garden. 

Beyond the dining-room is a long passage, where 
" Silence " on the walls marks the way to the 
vestry and Chapel, which would hold perhaps fifty 
persons. It is seated with chairs, and has a rood 
screen of carved Japanese! wood like light oak, pre- 
sented by the Bishop. The beautifully carved Holy 
Table and reredos, presented in memory of the late 
Mrs. Thornton, are of the same wood, and with 
their brass cross and candles, etc., stand out well 
against the hangings and sacrarium carpet presented 
last summer by the Bishop. The Chapel is lighted 
by hanging lamps, and three services are held there 
daily — shortened Matins at 7 a.m., Sext 12.30, with 
special intercessions, and Compline at 9 p.m. They 
are attended by the members, matrons, and mission 
women, etc., and by some of the pupils of the school, 
but not by any as yet unbaptized. Miss Thornton 
read the Office as Member-in-charge and Nurse Grace 
played the organ. In those quiet little services, 
which I followed as best I could in the English 
translation, I used to feel I was truly in the very 
heart of the work of S. Hilda's Mission. 

But you must return to the hall-door, where 
exactly facing you is the large schoolroom, with 
adj oining class rooms for the kindergarten and middle 



TOKYO. 21 

school. The schoolroom is fitted with English desks 
and benches ; all is as orderly as an English High 
school, but the pupils are in the prettiest Japanese 
costume, and with their curious inkstands and paint- 
brush pens, their low bows and whispered English 
welcome, they are a very attractive and interesting 
sight to a visitor. The kitchen department is on the 
right, fitted with a Japanese stove (hibachi), out of 
which the cook manages to produce dishes to suit the 
taste of both Japanese and English residents in the 
Mission House. 

Upstairs are the members' bedrooms, the sitting- 
room of the Member-in-charge, and the school-girls' 
dormitories, with a separate cubicle for each girl. 
Behind the house is a good-sized strip of lawn, with 
a fine view over the Bay of Tokyo. A swing has 
been put up for the pupils, and is warmly appreciated 
by them in their morning recess. 

Leaving the large Mission House you are soon at 
the Home for training Mission Women. It is a 
regular Japanese house, with a deep tiled roof and 
paper screen walls, shut in at night by the wooden 
shutters or amado. The floors are covered with 
matting, and there is therefore no admission in shoes ! 
In it live the valuable matron, Mrs. Ito, the four 
mission women under training, the nurses and the 
Christian girls of the needlework school, who gain a 
livelihood by taking orders from English ladies, and 



22 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

promise already to furnish candidates for the work of 
mission women. 

I paid a visit with Miss Thornton to this house, 
shortly before my father's arrival that morning. We 
entered in true Japanese style, falling on our knees 
and then on our faces, sitting on the floor and 
bowing our heads again at each polite remark. Then 
we inspected the various rooms, the needlework girls 
showing their work, which would have done credit 
to a high English standard. Two of the mission 
women were Catechists' wives, learning how to help 
their husbands in teaching, and another was a poor 
woman, a hospital patient, who had become devoted 
to Nurse Grace during her illness, and grief at the 
loss of her baby. Each had her story, and as we 
heard them one by one, and saw the well-ordered 
house, we felt that the Guild which supported them 
was no matter of subscriptions only, but a living work 
with earnest yet very happy responsibilities. 

A little nearer the road stands S. Hilda's Hospital, 
the first stone of which was laid by the Duchess of Con- 
naught in 1890. It is a cheerful-looking building, in 
foreign (European) style, with French windows open- 
ing on a verandah, and two large wards, one for men 
and the other for women, and two small ones for 
separate cases, besides all the necessary waiting- 
rooms, bath-rooms, &c. It is carried on according to 
Japanese ideas, except that, for the sake of health, 



TOKYO. 23 

iron bedsteads are used, instead of the patients 
sleeping on the floor, according to their own custom. 
The beds are covered with scarlet futons or quilts, 
which gave a gay appearance to the wards. While 
we were in Tokyo, to our great disappointment, the 
hospital was closed, owing to the legal difficulties 
raised about the lease by the landlord, Count Shi- 
madzu, but we went all over the building, and, by 
a visit to the University Practising Hospital, could 
get a good idea of what S. Hilda's Hospital would be 
when occupied. In one important point we found 
that all ordinary Japanese hospitals differ from 
English, namely, in that of visitors, who are 
allowed all day, and all night too, if they desire ! 
It must be confessed our astonishment and amuse- 
ment were very great, when we saw each patient 
surrounded by relations or friends who were smok- 
ing and drinking tea as if they were in their 
own houses. In S. Hilda's Hospital, on the contrary, 
Nurse Grace has regular visiting hours, and told us 
she had never met with the slightest objection to the 
plan from either patients or relations. 

The Holy Charity Dispensary is attached to the 
Hospital, and is built in the garden of the Mission 
House. It is attended by an increasing number 
of the poorest Japanese, and as it was not in- 
cluded in the objections raised by the landlord, we 
saw it in full working order. The doctor was sitting 



24 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

in the outer room to give the necessary interviews, 
the dispenser in the inner one to distribute the 
medicines, and a poor little girl-patient, not nearly 
as tall as the counter, was waiting to have her pre- 
scription made up. 

The last Report tells us that the number of patients 
at S. Hilda's Hospital and Dispensary had increased 
from 411 in 1890 to 1,059 in 1891, and the attendances 
from 1,000 to 5,265. It is, in fact, rapidly becoming- 
one of the most important branches of S. Hilda's Mis- 
sion, none being more willing to listen to the teaching 
given them than the patients who have proved for 
themselves the meaning of true Christian charity. 

Leaving S. Hilda's House we returned to S. An- 
drew's in time for the midday intercession service 
in the private Chapel, and, after tiffin, my brother 
took us a long drive round Tokyo. 

The Mikado's Palace was the first point of interest. 
It, and many other public buildings (including the 
British Legation), are built within the limits of 
the Castle. This is an enclosure of some four miles 
in extent, in the centre of Tokyo, partly surrounded 
by a fine moat, and entered by several remarkable 
gateways of ancient Japanese architecture. 

The Mikado was at home, so we could only view 
the Palace from outside, but we called at the Legation, 
where we were kindly received by the Minister, Mr. 
Fraser, and his wife. 



TOKYO. 25 

We then drove to a distant part of the city 
called Ushigome, in order to visit the little Mis- 
sion Church, school, and dispensary, then in charge 
of the Rev. Armine King (S. Andrew's Mission), 
but since entrusted to a Japanese clergyman. The 
centre of a small crowd of wondering Japanese, 
we went first to the Church, which would hold per 
haps 100 people, and then to the day-school and 
dispensary. What was the lesson they impressed 
upon us ? Surely this — the value of missionary work 
concentrated on a given district in a large city. In 
such a station the work is begun by the foreigner, 
but in time he gathers round him a band of Japanese 
converts, and trains them in the life of an ordinary 
English parish. By his teaching and their example, 
constant opportunities occur for direct missionary 
work among the surrounding heathen. The Church 
is the centre of all his work, and gradually one thing 
after another can be entrusted to the Japanese, and 
the foreign missionary can move on to a situation of 
greater need. But he leaves with the assurance that the 
work will not flag with his departure ; for a Japanese 
priest is left in charge, and another stone has been 
laid in the national Church so dear to the heart of the 
Bishop and all who work under him. 

Mission Churches like Ushigome suggest the 
thought, " What will be the Japanese ecclesiastical 
architecture of the future ? " At present it is very 



26 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

difficult to say. The Christians as yet shrink from 
anything approaching the designs of the ancient 
temples, beautiful and appropriate as they would 
often be. Yet, as the Church increases, one can 
scarcely doubt that the intense patriotism and artistic 
feeling of the nation will demand an outlet. The 
churches will then surely be Japanese, not feeble 
imitations of Gothic, and impregnated, as are the 
ancient temples, with the associations of heathen- 
ism, it is not impossible that their exquisite 
carving may in the future be redeemed for 
Christianity. 

I returned to S. Hilda's by 5.30, and gladly con- 
sented to the proposal of the Mission ladies that 
I should accompany them in their usual Thursday 
visit to a dispensary at Kyobashi, another of the 
S. Andrew's Mission districts. Twenty-four hours 
in Japan had by no means dimmed my enjoy- 
ment of a jinriksha ride, and I cheerfully resigned 
myself to the charge of a delightful little Japanese 
with a white mushroom-shaped hat and a Chinese 
lantern. Looking down the long streets, with the 
little open shops lighted by oil lamps, and the ever- 
moving lanterns of the jinrikshas, I felt I was in an 
Eastern city indeed, with a strong touch of fairyland 
by night, whatever might be its realities by day ! On 
we went, in and out among the numerous canals, 
passing through a Matsuri, or religious fair, in which 



10KY0. 27 

commerce and pleasure were apparently admitted, but 
all religion was strictly excluded. We stopped at a 
house in a small street of Kyobaslii, and knew by tlie red 
cross on the lantern that we had reached our destina- 
tion, the Dispensary of Holy Cross Church at Kyobaslii. 
Bowing low we entered the house — no front door, no 
hall — but, taking off our shoes, we stepped straight 
from the street on the floor of the house raised a foot 
or two above the ground. Japanese houses have two 
sets of screens, which form their walls and windows, 
the outer one of wood only, the inner of light wood 
frames with thin white paper pasted over them. All 
day long the outer ones are entirely and the inner 
partially pushed aside, and the life of the house is 
therefore visible from the street or garden. In an 
inner room, that is, with the screen towards the street 
closed, Nurse Grace had her dispensary — a table on 
which to mix medicines, a cupboard to hold the drugs, 
a Japanese wooden pillow for the patients, and one 
chair for the doctor, which was kindly offered to me. 
The patients sat on the floor of the outer room, men, 
women and children, each with their dispensary 
ticket and bottles wrapped neatly in handkerchiefs, 
or a cockle shell to contain ointments. As Nurse 
Grace and Miss Thornton came in, they prostrated 
themselves on the floor, and continued to do so at 
intervals during the evening whenever the mission 
ladies spoke to them. The very poorest of the poor, 



28 JAPAN AS WE SAW II. 

they never seemed to lose their quiet courtesy to each 
other or to us, and their trust and gratitude towards our 
missionaries were very touching to see. I sat there for 
perhaps an hour and a half, and as I watched Nurse 
Grace and Miss Thornton ministering to them in 
mind and body, I felt that here again the Guild was 
being already rewarded tenfold for anything it is 
doing to further such work in Japan. After the 
medicines had been distributed, Miss Thornton sat 
among the people and taught them very simply. 
The look of interest deepened on their faces as she 
proceeded, and I think they would have listened for 
hours. One deaf woman had some special teaching 
given to her afterwards, and she told Miss Thornton 
that she folded her hands to God every night now, 
and felt sure it had helped her. At last it was time 
to go, but before we left, the owner of the house 
appeared with a dainty tray of tea — blue cups with 
no handle, and no milk or sugar, but nevertheless 
containing very refreshing tea — which she presented 
kneeling at our feet, and which we accepted with 
many bows. Then returning to our jinrikshas we 
came back once more to the weird fairyland life of 
the streets, but with a sense on my part that a deep 
meaning had been added to their story, and that 
behind their outer attractiveness was the suffering 
and the deep spiritual need which only our Faith 
could soothe and satisfy. 



TOKYO. 



29 



Sept. 25. — A lovely morning, hot as an English 
midsummer. I walked up to S. Andrew's House, 
asking my way of a Japanese policeman, who in 
answer to my " Sakae Clio ? " (the name of the 
street), replied, in English, " Thees way." The police 




JAPANESE SAMURAT, OR TWOSWORDED WARRIOR. 

are, as a rule, men of good position, that is, samurai, 
or military retainers of the former daimyos (feudal 
lords) of Japan. They wear white in summer and 
dark blue in winter, and carry swords. So capital is 
their supervision of the streets that my brother told 



30 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

us it is possible to go into any part of Tokyo at night 
without danger of molestation. 

We spent the morning in a visit to the Ladies' 
Institute, a school for high-class girls, then in charge of 
Miss MacEae (late of Baker Street High School) and of 
several other English mistresses. It has fifty pupils, 
including a little princess, a relation of the Mikado. 
It is in the hands of a Japanese committee of 
professors, merchants, etc., who forbid direct religious 
instruction in school hours, but not otherwise. My 
father notes in his diary : " The indirect influence for 
good of the Institute is very great on the highest 
Tokyo society." Some of the pupils have been 
baptized, and others are Christians in heart, though 
family influence prevents their coming forward for 
baptism. The terms of the original proposal of the 
committee were drawn up by Count Ito, Minister 
of Education at that time, and were very curious. 
They said indeed no religious instruction could be 
given in school hours, but that no barrier would 
be placed on Christian influence out of school hours, 
and that they "would prefer a Christian mistress 
to an Agnostic one." The Institute was started in 
a picturesque Yashiki, or palace of a former daimyo, 
but its present quarters are a strange contrast. The 
Government have lent the committee their Engi- 
neering College for a term of five years. It is a huge 
brick building, erected in foreign style, with sixty- 



TOKYO. 31 

six oblong rooms of great height and all the same 
size. Both house and rooms furnish another curious 
instance of how Japanese art seems to commit suicide 
when it attempts to imitate anything foreign, not 
only in architecture, but also in dress or china, and 
to a certain extent in furniture. 

In the afternoon we visited the famous Shiba 
temples and woods, which are within an easy walk 
of S. Andrew's House. The temples, some eight in 
number, were built in memory of the Tokugawa, or 
latest dynasty of Shoguns (military rulers of Japan), 
two of whom were buried at Nikko and six in Ueno, 
at the opposite end of Tokyo. Next to those at Nikko, 
these Shiba temples are considered to be specimens 
of Japanese art at its finest period, and we had a 
most interesting afternoon examining them. They 
are made of wood, gorgeously lacquered, gilded, and 
carved, both outside and in ; the carving of the pillars 
and open-work frieze of buds and flowers being in 
every case exquisitely painted in the colours of nature. 
Each temple is divided into three parts — an outer 
gallery, connecting corridor, and inner sanctum, and 
by tying cotton slippers over our shoes we were free 
to wander where we pleased. Buddhist priests were 
in charge, but we noticed very few images of Buddha 
or Kwannon, the Goddess of Mercy, such as we saw 
so frequently afterwards in other temples. In front of 
the scarlet lacquer altars, with their tall candlesticks 



32 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

and flowers, were curious stands for incense, and the 
sacred Buddhist scriptures. No worshippers knelt 
before the altars, and services are only held twice 
a month by the Buddhist priests. 

The effect of the temples from outside is marred by 
the high black wood screens fitted closely round them 
for protection from the weather, but the entrance gate 
and courtyard are very effective. The large inner 
court is partially filled with 212 bronze lanterns, 
votive offerings from retainers of the Shoguns, about 
four feet high, and illuminated, we were told, on 
festival nights. The Japanese consider the souls of 
the Shoguns live in the temples, but their bodies are 
buried in very plain stone tombs in an outer court, 
a strange contrast to the gorgeous buildings close at 
hand. 

We wandered among the tall dark fir-trees of the 
beautiful gardens, which surrounded the temple, and 
soon found ourselves in a very different scene. A 
large new temple, in which a seven days' festival was 
being held, had been lately erected to replace one 
destroyed by fire. We were very anxious to witness 
a Buddhist ceremonial, so entered quietly, leaving our 
shoes on the steps outside. But there was no quiet 
inside. Two or three hundred worshippers were 
paying their devotions, and the scene was indeed a 
strange one. I could see how for a moment any 
visitor is reminded of a Eoman church by the gaudy 



TOKYO. 33 

colouring of the altar, the paper flowers in the vases, 
and the gorgeous robes of the priests ; but there the 
likeness ends. The great musical gong that sounded 
every few moments to rouse the gods, the ugly 
wooden clappers beaten without ceasing for the same 
purpose, the wailing prayers in Chinese or Sanscrit, 
often not understood by the priests themselves, the 
utter irreverence of many of the people (a large party 
were drinking tea during the service), and, above all, 
the overpowering sense that the worship is directed 
to nothing, no vital Christian faith underlying all, as 
in Eomanism — no, never for a moment could a just 
comparison be made between them. Buddhism, as we 
saw it in Japan, is heathen to its very core, and the 
effect of this and of every other Buddhist temple 
that we visited, was to deepen our pity for the 
Japanese, who have, in numberless instances, never 
heard of any other creed, and to strengthen our con- 
viction of the utter soullessness and dreariness of 
their worship. We felt that, could the members of 
our English Missionary Societies and Guilds visit a 
few such temples as we saw that day, they w^ould 
forget all anxiety about ways and means ; they would 
send out appeals that could not fail to quicken our 
Church at home into tenfold energy on behalf of 
Japan. 

We drove back to S. Andrew's House, stopping for 
a few minutes at a preaching-station in charge of the 



34 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

Mission. It was a small house, built in a prominent 
position ; and one side of it being as usual open to the 
street, any lecture in the lower rooms was certain 
to attract passers-by. The Japanese managed it 
almost entirely themselves, and we were told that 
several persons had been brought to baptism by its 
means. 

Sept. 27. — We started at eleven o'clock in jinrikshas 
to visit the temple and graves of the forty-seven 
Eonins. These were a band of Japanese heroes who 
have been held in reverence by their countrymen for 
nearly 200 years as the very soul of honour and 
chivalry. Their story was, shortly, as follows : Asano, 
their lord, an honest man, had been grossly insulted 
by Kira, another nobleman of contemptible character. 
They fought in the royal palace ; Kira fled, and Asano 
was compelled, by Japanese law, to commit suicide ; 
his castle was forfeited, and his clan disbanded. But 
forty-seven of his followers became ronins (wanderers), 
and banded themselves together to avenge him. 
They lulled Kira into a false security, obtained 
entrance to his castle and murdered him, he having, 
in a cowardly fashion, according to Japanese ideas, 
refused to commit suicide. Then, having laid his 
head on their lord's grave, they submitted without a 
shudder to the official sentence, which ordered them 
to commit suicide separately, and their bodies were 
buried in the same temple grounds with that of their 




D 2 



TOKYO. 37 

lord. Incense still burns before the grave of the 
leader, and sprays of bamboo are laid on the graves 
of his followers, showing us that this strange story 
of revenge and bloodshed, with its one redeeming 
point of unswerving loyalty, has survived all the 
changes of the past thirty years in Japan. 

In the afternoon about two hundred and eighty of 
the six hundred Christians of our Church in Tokyo 
(representatives of the English and American Mis- 
sions) met in S. Andrew's Divinity School, to present 
an address of welcome to my father. He replied 
through an interpreter, and it was indeed a most 
interesting scene. The meeting began with some 
hymns and prayers in Japanese, after which the 
pupils of S. Hilda's School presented to him, through 
their master, a beautiful painted scroll or kakemono, 
by one of the best artists in Tokyo. The party 
then adjourned to Archdeacon Shaw's garden, where 
a very successful photograph was taken, not one out 
of two hundred persons having moved, and we were 
finally invited to watch a fascinating exhibition of 
jugglers and conjurors, and to join in a feast of tea 
and cakes. Every detail of the afternoon was 
arranged by a Japanese committee, and admirably 
carried out. 

Sept 27. — Our first Sunday in Japan. We all went 
to the early Celebration of Holy Communion in 
S. Andrew's Church, a pretty red-brick building, 



38 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

holding about two hundred people, and in charge of 
Archdeacon Shaw (S.P.GL). The service (8 a.m,) 
was attended by a large number of Japanese, whose 
quiet reverence throughout was very remarkable. 
The men occupied one side of the church and the 
women the other (a universal practice in Japan), their 
wooden shoes being arranged in neat rows at the 
door, and appropriated afterwards by their owners 
without any apparent difficulty. At that time 
S. Andrew's Church had no bell to call the people to 
service, but my father started a subscription while 
we were in Tokyo for a set of tubular bells, which 
have since been sent out, and were rung for the first 
time on Easter Day 1892, to the great delight of the 
Japanese. They would not have sanctioned a single 
bell, as in Japan this is an invariable summons to k a 
fire, a light scaffolding with a " look-out " for the 
firemen and a bell being a prominent object in every 
city. 

At Matins the church was crowded with English, 
mostly residents in Tokyo and Yokohama, when my 
father preached on the missionary aspect of a 
foreigner's life in Japan, taking for his text the four 
comfortable words in the Holy Communion Office. 
In the afternoon, Dr. Howard, to whom we owed so 
much for his care of my brother during his recent 
illness, took me to see Mrs. Kirkes, a widow lady 
who has devoted her life to work among the highest 



TOKYO. 39 

classes in Tokyo. She invites them to her beautiful 
house in Nagata Clio, winning an entree into theirs 
as a valued friend. We had an interesting discussion 
on the present state of thought in Tokyo. She said 
(l) that the present anti-foreign feeling was politi- 
cal, not deep-seated nor spontaneous ; (2) that the 
adoption by some of the ladies of foreign dress (which 
the Empress still orders to be worn at Court) had been 
a help to them in their effort to improve their social 
position, though, of course, from an artistic point of 
view, it was to be deplored ; (3) that the influence of 
Buddhism had practically ceased among the educated 
classes, and a widespread atheism had taken its place ; 
(4) as to her own work and friends, that she had 
persuaded some of the ladies to attend fortnightly 
lectures on Christianity by the Be v. J. Imai Toshi- 
michi at the English Embassy last Lent, and that a 
magazine she edited had a good circulation among 
them. 

Evensong in S. Hilda's Chapel, and a general 
gathering of the members of S. Andrew's and 
S. Hilda's Missions at my brother's house, closed 
the day. 



40 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 



CHAPTER III. 

NIKKO AND IKAO. 

We left Tokyo by an early train on Monday morning, 
September 28th, driving to Ueno station, some four 
miles from S. Andrew's House, and gaining a good 
idea of the dense population and size of the great city 
in our ride through its streets. Certainly Tokyo was 
a great surprise to us ; the long narrow streets with- 
out foot-paths — the small picturesque shops of one 
or two storeys, their line broken in many cases 
by gardens or temples, or the palaces of some old 
feudal lord (daimyo) — the utter contrast in every detail 
to the life and appearance of a European city, made 
our rides and drives a continual interest, and will give 
a completely different framework to the picture of 
our Mission that we had mentally made during the 
past few years. 

The train, on the contrary, that we found at Ueno 
station was Western in the extreme, the only Japan- 
ese feature being a dainty little table, arranged for 
water or tea, in our carriage, and the discovery that, 
for about a penny three farthings, we could at one 
station buy a teapot, tea-cup and tea ! 



NIKKO AND IKAO. 41 

Our journey, of some five hours, took us through 
numberless rice fields now just ready for harvest, and 
varied by fields of " lily roots," maize, and soba, all 
used as food by the Japanese. It was the most fertile 
plain in Japan, and every square yard was carefully 
cultivated, while the peasants, with their big paper 
umbrellas, fans, and chopsticks, made me feel as if 
all the screens and Japanese sketches in our English 
houses had come to life and were walking about before 
my eyes ! But as we approached Nikko, the country 
became much wilder. We slowly climbed the 
wooded hills, and at times the railway passed and 
even crossed the two magnificent avenues of crypto- 
meria, twenty miles long, and from a hundred to a 
hundred and twenty feet high, which seem a very 
fitting approach to the tomb of Japan's greatest hero 
— Iyeyasu, the founder of the last dynasty of 
Shoguns, or military rulers. 

We arrived at Nikko about 2 p.m., and jinrikshas 
soon took us to our hotel, about a mile and-a-half s 
ride from the station. Passing through the straggling 
village, we crossed the pretty arched bridge over the 
river, and hurried past the long line of shops, with 
their attractive collections of monkey-skins and black 
wood carving. That afternoon and the next morning 
we devoted to studying the gorgeous temples and 
pagoda, which were built early in the last century, 
when Japanese art is supposed to have touched its 



42 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

highest point, and which lead up to the quiet spot 
among the cryptomeria where Iyeyasu is buried. 
Two distinct impressions of Nikko were left on our 
mind, for that first afternoon was damp and sunless, 
and the great trees towered above us through the 
mist, and the gold and colours of the temple roofs 
and walls were subdued into a soft dreamy beauty 
which we shall never forget. The next morning 
was brilliant in the extreme, each colour was intensi- 
fied by the sunlight, and each building looked like a 
lovely mosaic set in the dark background of solemn 
fir-trees. We passed through the various courts, 
studying the elaborate carving and gold lacquer that 
decorated each roof and gateway, and having our at- 
tention called to the reversed pattern on one section 
of a column — an intentional blemish made by the 
Japanese for fear the gods should be jealous of absolute 
perfection in human work, and visit their jealousy on 
the house of Iyeyasu. Then, taking off our shoes, 
we went into the inner shrine of the temple — purely 
Shinto, which contained no idols, but only the 
goheij or strips of white paper, to attract the gods' 
attention, and a polished mirror typical of illumina- 
tion. It had that strange sense of utter dreariness 
and shallowness that weighs so heavily on one in every 
heathen temple. 

After climbing two hundred steps through the grove 
of cryptomeria to the graveyard, we sat for a while 



NIKKO AND IKAO. 



45 



near the tomb, with its massive bronze urn and in- 
cense burners, and returned to our hotel in time for 
a delightful mountain expedition to Lake Chusenji. 
We were the merriest party in the world that after- 
noon, as, with two men to each jinriksha, we made our 
way through the lovely valley of Nikko. Crossing the 
stream with its curious basket-work breakwater filled 
with stones, we slowly climbed the mountain side, 




FROM A PHOTOGRAPH OF CARVING AT NIKKO. 



stopping now and then for some tea at a wayside 
" Cha ya " (tea house), and admiring the magnificent 
views of the surrounding country. Chusenji is a 
mountain village, built on the edge of the beautiful 
lake of the same name, and has a very famous 
temple. We noticed rows of long sheds as we entered 
the village, where pilgrims find shelter at great 
festivals, but had not sufficient time to visit the 
temple itself, as our watches warned us to start 



46 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

again almost immediately if we were to be in Nikko 
before dark. The return journey was very exciting. 
We dashed down the sharp zigzag path into the 
valley, our men having certainly no pity for ladies' 
nerves ! One acted as a drag, and the other, rushing 
ahead, pulled with all his might, as if about to throw 
himself, his light machine, and its occupant, over the 
edge of the precipice. But, no ! Just as we drew 
breath in preparation for the impending accident, they 
slowed down to a trot that exactly swung us round the 
dangerous curve, and I, who was in front, had the en- 
joyment of watching how my next neighbour endured 
each ordeal, until by a final rush we were again in the 
valley, and could watch our panting runners as they 
washed their hands and faces in a little mountain 
stream before taking us down the long winding road to 
Nikko. (N.B. — Jinriksha men are, or should be, strict 
teetotalers, as they find stimulants shorten their lives.) 
We intended to visit the temples of Iyemitsu, 
Iyeyasu's grandson, next morning, but we were pre- 
vented by a typhoon, a somewhat severe one, which 
made going out a sheer impossibility. However, by 
2 p.m. the torrents of rain ceased, and Mrs. Bicker- 
steth and I started in jinrikshas to do a little shopping 
in Nikko, my father preceding us on foot. But we 
had quite mistaken the force of the typhoon during 
the morning in our sheltered hotel. As we got into 
the gully leading to Nikko our jinrikshas were nearly 



NIKKO AND IKAO. 49 

blown over, the road was flooded with water, and 
every minute or two showers of spray were blown 
along by the wind for some fifty to a hundred feet 
above the stream, now a raging torrent. Any 
progress seemed a very damp and doubtful affair,, 
and we soon gave it up and returned to the hotel, 
followed shortly by my father, who had also got very 
wet in his attempt to find his way through the heavy 
storm to Nikko. But even then the wonders of a 
typhoon were scarcely over, for to our amazement, 
when, only an hour later, well wrapped up, we 
faced the same road to get to the station, we found 
the stream scarcely rougher than usual, the spray de- 
parted, and only the broken road and two houses 
crushed by a landslip to tell that the lovely afternoon 
had been preceded by such a morning. We reached 
the station at four o'clock, and went down the short 
piece of line to Utsunomiya, where we were to spend 
the night in a purely Japanese hotel. 

We arrived about six o'clock, and our luggage was 
seized at once by the hotel porter — such individuals 
are generally dressed in dark blue cotton, with the 
name of the hotel stamped in white on their backs— 
and we followed him on foot to the hotel, which was 
just the other side of the road. It was a large two- 
storied building, and its lights shone out brilliantly 
through the half-closed screens of the walls. The 
street was full of gay Japanese folk, carrying 

E 



50 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

paper lanterns, and adding their quota to the general 
picturesqueness of the scene. 

There was no need to ring at the door, for door there 
was none. The walls, and to a large extent the win- 
dows, of a Japanese house are represented by thin white 
paper screens, fitted into a light wood framework, 
and pushed aside in the day to admit the light and 
air — a little too much of the latter at times, as we 
soon discovered ! 

Bowing all round, we sat down on the door-step, 
or rather on the edge of the house, and taking off our 
shoes, we were then at liberty to walk over the 
springy and very white straw mats that covered the 
interior. The furnishing of a Japanese house must 
be extremely cheap, with nothing in the rooms, as a 
rule, except the matting on the floor and the hibachi or 
charcoal brasier, and perhaps one vase of flowers in 
the recess, or place of honour, and one picture or 
Kakemono on the wall. The hotel at Utsunomiya 
was much in this style. As we saw in many other 
places, the whole lower floor could have been thrown 
into one by taking away the screens that separated 
the various rooms — a decided convenience in mis- 
sionary work. 

As we soon climbed up the ladder-like staircase 
to the upper floor, I noticed a wooden trough 
in the centre of the house, and was told this was 
where the family and Japanese visitors would wash 



NIKKO AND IKAO. 51 

their hands and faces in the morning. The bath- 
room, where all would take a daily and exceedingly 
hot bath, was in another part of the house. Every 
day convinced us more deeply of the cleanliness of 
the Japanese, though they have much to learn in the 
method of their ablutions. 

Once up the stairs we found ourselves in a narrow 
wooden verandah that ran round all the rooms. It 
was open to the street, but the rooms had paper- 
screen walls that could be closed when desired. The 
verandah itself was also shut in late at night by 
strong wooden screens (araado or rain-doors), which 
were kept in a wooden cupboard, and run at night 
along grooves in the floor, wakening me out of my 
first sleep with a noise like thunder ! 

Our rooms, three in a row, were quite empty, and 
divided one from the other by thick paper screens. 
We had scarcely entered them when, with beaming 
faces, the hotel servants bore in an English table and 
chairs, which looked sadly out of place. But we could 
scarcely refuse to admit them into one of the rooms, 
though it must be owned that a short residence 
on the floor sent one with cramped limbs to enjoy 
their prosaic comfort with warmer appreciation than 
usual. 

All this time we were the centre of a cheerful 
circle of admirers, who bowed and smiled directly we 
looked at them, the hotel keeper prostrating himself 

E 2 



52 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

at our feet. At a suggestion from the Bishop they 
hurried away to prepare the evening meal, and soon 
a tiny red table, with legs a few inches high, and 
covered with about eight dishes made of lacquer and 
china, was placed before each of us. 

What was the bill of fare ? Something of this sort. 
Cold soup, hot soup, with a stiff sort of custard 
floating in it (oh, so hard to pick up with chop- 
sticks !) ; a sort of curry, rice, tiny bits of radish, 
ginger, cooked chestnut, and two kinds of fish, and 
of course little cups of tea ad libitum. We attacked 
all, everything being in very small quantities, with 
chopsticks, while the little circle of Japanese watched 
with much amusement and encouraging admiration, 
though undoubtedly the tall foreigners, seated on 
their high pedestals, must have looked quaintly out 
of keeping with their surroundings. I looked up 
now and then into the gaily-lighted street, where, 
in the opposite house, also an hotel, the screens were 
drawn aside, and you could see a group of Japanese 
gathered round a man, probably a professional story- 
teller, and fascinated by his legends of the heroes 
of old days. 

But our evening was short, as we had to start very 
early next morning. The Bishop gave the orders, 
and the willing maids removed the dinner, and came 
in again looking almost extinguished by large dark 
blue quilts or futons, which were to form our beds. 



NIKKO AND 1KA0. 53 

How we laughed, as two were spread for each 
mattress, a third was rolled up for a pillow (N.B. 
- — The Japanese use a high icooclen pillow, or very 
hard bolster), while the fourth was left as a coverlet, 
a great luxury being added in the way of one sheet 
and a pillow cover. 

The beds took up half our room ; the screens were 
drawn all round, and though we could probably all 
own to a strong sensation of being shut up in an old- 
fashioned paper-lined trunk, we were left to get what 
sleep we could in the extremely lively quarters of a 
Japanese hotel. But it was not easy work. The 
blind shampooers were blowing their whistles in the 
street below ; the guests in the hotel opposite and the 
passers-by chattered gaily ; the dogs barked ; a train 
arrived ab the station, and the owners of each hotel 
shouted out the merits of their various houses ; and 
then, just as I was dozing a little, the wooden shutters 
were drawn all round the hotel, and in every other 
house of Utsunomiya, to judge from the astounding 
clatter. Then, at last, comparative quiet fell on the 
city, but I was awaked now and then by the wooden 
clappers of the watchman on guard, and could hear 
him walking softly outside my paper w T alls. A night 
in a Japanese inn — it was more entertaining than 
solidly comfortable, but we would not have missed 
the experience on any consideration. 

Oct. 1. — We got up soon after four o'clock, as we 



54 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

were to leave by the 6 a.m. train ; but " getting up ,T 
proved to be decidedly more complicated than the 
mere words would imply. Japanese, as we mentioned 
before, are delightfully clean, but they conduct their 
ablutions, more or less, in public bath-houses, and no 
water is allowed to enter the actual rooms with their 
beautiful white-matted floors. However, their un- 
failing courtesy found a partial, very partial, solution 
for our difficulty. The paper-screen walls, or shoji, 
of each room were pushed aside a few inches, and 
behold ! a tin pail full of cold water had been placed 
in the verandah, and a blue-cotton towel, the size of 
a handkerchief, beside each pail. It was ever so 
much better than nothing ! One by one we pushed 
our heads cautiously through the screens (the open 
street being just below) and performed a few rapid ablu- 
tions. We made up for past deficiencies that night, on 
our arrival at the luxurious semi-foreign hotel at Ikao. 
After a breakfast of tea and eggs, with bread 
brought from S. Andrew's House, we said good-bye 
to Utsunomiya and its fascinating hotel, and started 
by train for Maebashi, from which jinrikshas were 
to take us to Ikao, a beautiful mountain station, 
noted for its hot springs. Owing to the typhoon 
of the day before, the journey proved a very long 
one. A railway bridge had broken down, and we 
had to go back to Omiya, within seventeen miles 
of Tokyo, and wait an hour for the Maebashi 



NIKKO AND IKAO. 55 

train. In many parts of the line we noticed 
that the telegraph poles had been blown down, and 
the roads nearly destroyed, and when we started 
from Maebashi for the ride of fifteen and a half miles 
to Ikao, our jinrikshas could only bump slowly over 
the broken country roads and up the mountain side, 
a process which proved decidedly tiring. The country 
we passed through, however, was very interesting. 
It was a silk district, and bore no sign of poverty, 
with its comfortable wooden houses every few yards, 
and large villages at intervals. We could see the 
piles of cocoons lying on the edges of the houses, 
and the women spinning and weaving inside. The 
children shouted a cheerful " Ohio " (Good-morning) 
to us, and the big school-boys, with their books 
packed up in coloured handkerchiefs, and often a 
baby brother or sister tied on their backs, laughed 
merrily at the little party of foreigners — an Indian 
tussore dust-cloak worn by one of us seeming to 
afford them endless amusement. Altogether the 
journey gave us a real glimpse into Japanese country 
life, vivid, amusing, and very varied, and yet, being 
our first long journey alone among the people, it 
impressed upon us with peculiar emphasis the strong 
grasp of heathenism upon the land. Home life and 
village life were indeed brought vividly before 
us, but never a token of the highest life of all — 
nothing but the wayside Shinto shrines and the 



56 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

Buddhist temples, with their dim feeling after that 
which, as all who have penetrated below the surface of 
society will testify, they have utterly failed to bring 
home to the intense yearning of Japan. It was a 
lesson only to be learned on the spot, and one we 
shall never forget. 

As we got nearer Ikao, a range of high mountains, 
with curiously-shaped summits, came in sight, and as 
we entered the village itself, a hot stream of mineral 
water (115° Fahr.), rushing along our path, told us 
we were indeed in volcano -land. 

About 6.15 p.m. we entered the courtyard of the 
Hotel Kindayu, a charming Japanese house, but 
furnished in English fashion. Our rooms looked over 
the picturesque village on to the splendid panorama of 
the great plain and distant hills towards Tokyo, and 
the young landlord of the hotel did his best to make 
his foreign guests feel at home. 

Oct. 2. — The following morning we started in 
perfect weather for an expedition to Haruna, a valley 
about five miles from Ikao, and noted for its volcanic 
rocks and elaborately-carved Shinto temple. The 
road was too much injured by the recent typhoon for 
jinrikshas, but my brother was able to hire some 
Canton chairs made of basket-work, in which we were 
carried by twelve men (four to each chair) on long 
bamboo poles. We passed through three distinct 
styles of scenery : first by a zigzag path up the 




SHINTO SHRINE, 1YEYASU S TEMPLE , TvTKKO. 



NIKKO AND IKAO. 59 

wooded hill-side ; then across a desolate plateau with 
a quiet little lake in its centre, evidently the crater of 
an extinct volcano ; and finally, after a splendid view 
of three ranges of distant mountains, down the rapid 
descent to Haruna. We stopped occasionally to 
admire the extraordinary rocks, perhaps a hundred and 
fifty feet in height, which rose at irregular intervals 
among the splendid cryptomeria and maples of the 
valley. One was like a child's tower of bricks, pushed a 
little on one side, and another like a bird with a very 
long neck ; and a third, an enormous mass poised on 
a slender base, hung just above the principal temple 
of the village, and seemed as if the slightest quiver 
of an earthquake would hurl it from its resting-place. 
The temple and its surrounding buildings and 
gateways were indeed exquisitely carved and coloured, 
and their grey-tiled roofs were surmounted by pieces 
of wood in the shape of the letter X, representing the 
most ancient style of Japanese architecture. A short- 
flight of steps led us up to the main building, through 
the open doors of which we could see the altar, 
adorned with its gohei, or bundles of white paper 
shavings fastened to a wand, and shutting off 
effectually the inner chamber where the emblem of 
the god, probably a mirror, or stone, or sword, would 
be kept, wrapped in endless coverings, and scarcely 
ever seen even by the priests. Separate paper 
shavings streamed from the lintel of the doors ; and 



60 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

close at hand, on the right, was a smaller building, 
probably the oratory, in which the worshippers would 
kneel, having previously pulled a straw rope attached 
to a gong in order to attract the god's attention. 

The temple being built on a mountain and not on 
a plain, where Shinto temples are almost invariably 
to be found, was evidently originally Buddhist. But 
no trace of Buddhism could be seen except the 
carving and colouring, as it was one of those specially 
purified from Buddhist emblems at the time of the 
Revolution (1868), when there was a strong reaction 
in favour of everything national. It was a great sur- 
prise to us to find how, almost invariably, the two 
prevailing creeds, Buddhism and. Shintoism, are inter- 
fused, not only in the temples but in the minds of 
the Japanese. The temple, with its Shinto gohei and 
roof, and its Buddhist ritual and images, affords a 
vivid representation of the twin faiths of the people, 
by whose teaching a child will be placed under the 
care of a Shinto deity at birth, but brought up and 
probably buried by Buddhist priests. A few years 
since we should have said certainly buried by them ; 
but by a recent law the exclusive claim of the 
Buddhist priests was ignored, and burial by any 
religious body sanctioned. As the Japanese them- 
selves allow, this gave a tremendous blow to the 
power of Buddhism, as it had previously always inter- 
vened at death, even if ignored during life. A form 



NIKKO AND IKAO. 61 

of Shinto burial, which claimed to be a revival of 
primitive practice, was instituted, of which we saw an 
interesting example later on in the south of Japan ; 
and Christians can be buried without any difficulty in 
the general cemeteries, and the service of the Church 
read over them. 

But to return to the intermingling of the two 
ancient creeds in the minds of the Japanese. Two 
good reasons can be given for the apparent puzzle. 
(1) : Buddhism, which entered Japan byway of Korea 
(556 a.d.), gave its immediate sanction to Shintoism, 
and admitted the gods of Shinto within its pantheon. 
(2) : Shintoism, a vague ancestor- worship, with scarcely 
any services and no dogmas, left the people free to 
adopt all the elaborate system and ritual of Buddhism 
without any break with their own past. 

After lunch in a tea-house on the edge of the 
ravine, we wandered down the village street, if street 
it could be called, being merely some irregular flights 
of steps, and now and then an arched bridge of 
scarlet lacquer, a delightful bit of colour among the 
surroundings of dark cryptomeria and rocks. We 
visited a Buddhist priest's house, where my brother 
had lived during part of a summer holiday, and 
returned to Ikao late in the afternoon, climbing once 
more to the plateau, and passing the beautiful lake 
on the summit of the pass. The Japanese have some 
curious superstitions about this lake. It is supposed 



62 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

to be a rival to one in Mount Akaji, but each is in 
charge of a dragon (Mushi). If a man were to 
stand by Haruna Lake and say Akaji Lake is the 
largest, it would sadly displease its dragon owner, 
and he would be sure to lose his way home and meet 
a terrible storm. The Rev. J. Imai, one of the Tokyo 
clergy, was born in the neighbourhood of Haruna, and 
well remembers hearing old people say in a storm 
that it came from the dragons of Akaji or Haruna, 
according to the direction of the wind. Before 
returning to our hotel at Ikao, we spent a good deal 
of time at some fascinating wood-carving shops at 
the entrance of the village. My brother did all the 
bargaining for us, as we knew no Japanese. It is an 
extremely difficult language, not in pronunciation, 
but in grammar and the arrangement of sentences. 
He, however, talks it fluently, and made the very best 
of guides throughout our tour. 

Oct. 3. — We left Ikao at 6.45 the following 
morning. The road down to the plain commands a 
splendid view of the hills, and the long line of peaks 
looked more beautiful than ever in the early morning 
light. The jinriksha men ran well, and brought us 
to Takasaki (20 i miles) in good time for the mid- 
day train to Tokyo, though the fourteen miles after 
we left the mountains must have been hard work. 
The high road to Takasaki was endlessly amusing, 
thronged with jinrikshas, and not a foreigner but 



N1KK0 AND IKAO. 63 

ourselves to be seen. One minute our attention 
would be attracted by a party of Buddhist priests 
with closely-shaven heads and golden-yellow silk 
robes ; the next we were laughing at some pear-trees, 
on which every pear was neatly packed in paper to 
prevent its ripening too fast ; and the next, we were 
whirled past a paper-umbrella-maker's garden, literally 
Muck with umbrellas of every hue, not hanging, but 
standing out to dry. A final rush through the streets 
of Takasaki, a large commercial town, finished this 
stage of the journey, and four o'clock found us again 
in Tokyo, and in time for the quiet evensong in S. 
Andrew's church. Ten days more in the capital lay 
before us, but we felt that our week in the country 
had been a valuable preparation for them by the 
further introduction it had given us to the Japanese 
" at home." 



64 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 



CHAPTER IV. 

LIFE IN THE GREAT CAPITAL. 

Oct 4. [Sunday). — My father preached in the 
morning at the American Church, a fine building 
erected by the energy of Bishop Williams, and quite 
worthy to be called a Cathedral. In the afternoon he 
addressed by interpretation the congregation of the 
C.M.S. Mission. 

About 6 p.m. we were all at S. Andrew's House, 
when my brother suddenly said " Earthquake ! " And 
so it was. The room quivered for a few seconds as if 
grasped and violently shaken by a rough hand, and 
then all was over. We had scarcely time to be 
alarmed, and it was indeed a different experience from 
that which was to befall us a few weeks later at 
Osaka, though it was repeated four times during our 
three weeks in Tokyo. 

Oct. 5. — The next morning was occupied with 
letters, and a visit paid by Mrs. Bickersteth and 
myself to the Tokyo kwankoba, or bazaar. The daily 
life of the Japanese was well represented in its long 



LIFE IN THE QBE AT CAPITAL. 



65 



rows of stalls, though in order to attract the foreigner 
they were arranged in European fashion. 

Here lay the gentleman's pipe and tobacco, his fan 
and quaint clasp for his obi (sash), and close at hand 
a pile of the wadded or thin cotton kimonos, that he 
would use in winter and summer. Not far off were 




JAPANESE TOURNAMENT IN THE OLD DAYS. 



his wife's hairpins and combs, her pipe (all women 
smoke in Japan) and her chop-sticks, and rolls of 
silk crape and gaily-printed cotton for her gowns. 
Endless toys could be obtained for their children, and 
brightly-decorated " name-bags " to hang round their 
necks and identify them when lost. In one corner 

F 



66 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

the student could choose his writing-case and seal, 
and the housewife could invest in a hibachi (stove) and 
kettle, and futons (the wadded quilts used for beds), 
while on perhaps the daintiest stall of the kwankoba 
everything was represented in miniature — in models 
that could only be equalled by the best Swiss or Italian 
work. Two of the S. Hilda's Mission ladies came with 
us, and with their kind aid we soon packed a jinriksha 
with odds and ends that would have thrown a morning 
at " Liberty's " into dim shade indeed. 

We lunched with Mrs. Kirkes at her house in 
Nagata Cho, and drove afterwards to call on Pere 
Nicolai, the Kussian Bishop. It was a great disap- 
pointment to find he was away from home. The 
Kusso-Greek mission in Japan is strongly backed by 
the Kussian Government, but its success is largely 
owing to the Bishop, who is a very remarkable man, 
and by personal influence has attracted to himself a 
band of able and well-read Japanese, by whose means 
he has organised a large number of mission stations 
in different parts of the country, their converts 
numbering now some 17,000 persons. The Kusso- 
Greek Cathedral, a basilica with walls six feet thick 
in order to resist earthquakes, is the finest foreign 
building in Tokyo, and has a great central dome 
like our own S. Paul's Cathedral. The interior is 
rather disappointing, empty and whitewashed, except 
the east end, which is a blaze of gilding and colour, 



LIFE IN TEE GREAT CAPITAL. 67 

with some fine pictures of saints introduced into it. 
We climbed up to the roof, and obtained our first un- 
interrupted view of Tokyo. Very striking it looked, 
with its dull grey sea of houses, broken now and then 
by a daimyo's palace and garden, or the roof of a 
temple, and with the beautiful Bay of Tokyo lying 
beyond. 

We returned home by the Ginza, the great central 
thoroughfare of the city. It has footpaths, and 
many of the shops are very large, and crowded with 
beautiful specimens of Japanese art. The attempts 
at English on the signboards in the Ginza and other 
streets of Tokyo are very amusing. " Wine, beer and 
other medicines " ; "A shop, the kind of umbrella, 
parasol or stick " ; " The shop for the furniture of 
the several countries " ; " Prices, no increase or di- 
minish"; "All kinds of superior sundries kept here"; 
"Skin maker and seller" (portmanteau shop); 
" Ladies furnished in the upstair." These are a few 
specimens ; and I always knew we were getting near to 
S. Andrew's House when we passed " Washins and 
ironins carefully done." 

We stopped that afternoon at the principal silk and 
crape shop to buy a few presents for our people at 
home. The shop was open to the street and fringed 
with dark cotton hangings. We sat on the edge of 
the floor, about a foot above the street, but did not 
go inside, as we did not want to take off our shoes. 

F 2 



68 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

After about half-an-hour's vigorous explanation from 
my brother, all we could wish for was produced ; but 
it must be confessed that Japanese shopping is a 
decidedly lengthy business. First, a pipe is offered 
you ; then tea ; then the least attractive goods are 
produced ; and at last, after much bowing on both 
sides, the very thing you have desired from the first ; 
but even then it will not be yours until it has been 
bargained down to a reasonable price. The crape 
merchant was well accustomed to foreigners, and 
begged leave to draw up an English bill for my father. 
It was a delightful production, made out for so much 
" yellow crepe " (though we had chosen pale blue and 
mauve), and directed to "Pickastes, Esq." 

AVe dined that night at Mr. and Mrs. Kirkwood's, 
and met Prince and Princess Cariati of the Italian 
Legation. The evening was very pleasant, though 
during dinner we experienced our second slight shock 
of earthquake. Mr. Kirkwood showed us some curious 
brass kettles for sake (spirits), which had been used at 
the marriage of his butler. A paper butterfly was tied 
on each, and one of the principal parts of the mar- 
riage ceremony had been the pouring of libations from 
these kettles into the same cup, which was then 
raised to the lips of the bridegroom and bride. 

Oct. 6. — We spent the morning in a visit to the 
Emperor's private gardens. He was in Tokyo at the 
time, but we were fortunate enough to get an order 



LIFE IN THE GREAT CAPITAL. 71 

through Archdeacon Shaw to see them. One of the 
palace officials was sent to explain everything to us. 
Our first impression was decidedly one of disappoint- 
ment. Was this the Imperial garden ? Here were 
no flower-beds and no flowers, only an intensely 
stiff arrangement of little stone paths and bridges, 
leading to a few plain summer-houses, and inter- 
spersed with curiously dwarfed trees, which seemed to 
have every bit of natural grace trained out of them. 
Their straight or sharply angular branches were 
supported on bamboo crutches, drooping over ponds of 
exceedingly definite outline, on whose banks every 
stone seemed to stand at attention ! 

Yes, it was most necessary to get into the " spirit 
of a fan." But having got there, our admiration began 
to grow, and we could see how exceedingly represen- 
tative of Japanese taste that garden was. Each care- 
fully calculated hillock bore in their eyes a poetical 
resemblance to Mt. Fuji. Each pond or row of stones 
suggested to them peace or rest, or had some philoso- 
phical meaning not to be fathomed by a hasty glance. 
The devotion of a minute unwearied skill — the con- 
densation of effect in the narrowest compass — it was 
this that was so truly Japanese, and, as we saw at 
last, possessed a quaint fairy-tale beauty of its own 
that made us most grateful for our glimpse into the 
Emperor's gardens. 

On our way home we visited Kyobashi Mission 



72 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

Church, then in charge of the Eev. F. E. Freese 
(S. Andrew's Mission) and the Rev. A. Iida, a 
Japanese deacon. The Church is the centre of a 
populous district, similar to that we had seen at 
Ushigome a few days previously, and it showed tokens 
of much care on the part of the congregation. We 
were asked to notice a board put up just inside the 
door, containing a number of Japanese names written 
on small wooden blocks, which could be moved as 
desired. One row represented the regular attendants 
at the Church ; another (a practice that might be 
occasionally useful in England) those who came less 
regularly, and the third touched us deeply — it was for 
those who had formerly attended the church, but were 
now in Paradise. The Kyobashi Christians always 
kneel outside the door, and say a short prayer 
before entering. Our attention was called to this 
reverent custom because it was observed by Mr. 
Iida before speaking to us, who were already inside 
when he arrived. We stayed for some time in the 
Church, and, after we left it, visited a place called 
the " Holy Mountain," not far from S. Andrew's 
House. It was really one of the many hills of Tokyo, 
and by mounting a high wooden tower on the sum- 
mit, we had a fine view of the Bay and of the great 
city. Close at hand were some specially sacred 
temples, which were approached from the street below 
by a steep ascent of about two hundred steps. 



LIFE IN THE QUE AT CAPITAL. 73 

In the afternoon we went to an " At Home " at S. 
Hilda's House, which was attended by many English 
^ind Japanese friends. All the lower rooms were 
thrown open, and the pupils of the school made an 
attractive group, as they stood round the piano and 
sang some glees in very creditable English. Some 
Japanese musicians were present, and played on the 
Koto and Samisen, instruments rather like the zither 
and banjo in appearance. They also sang several 
songs to us ; but, with all due deference to their skill, 
it must be confessed that it evidently requires a 
Japanese ear to appreciate Japanese music. 

After the " At Home," my father returned to 
S. Andrew's House, and gave an address on " The 
Deity of Christ " to thirty young men, students of 
S. Andrew's Divinity School, and members of the 
Night School and Club, many of the latter being non- 
Christians. He thus placed himself in touch with 
some of the most important work of S. Andrew's 
Mission. This Mission, it will be remembered, was 
founded by my brother in 1887, and consists of 
University men, working under his immediate direc- 
tion, and living in his house. At the time we were 
in Tokyo, it numbered six clergy : the Eev. Armine 
F. King (Warden), the Rev. L. B. Cholmondeley 
(Domestic Chaplain), the Rev. C. G. Gardner, the 
Rev. F. E. Freese, the Rev. H. Moore, and the 
Rev. L. F. Ryde. 



74 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

We were much struck with the value of the work 
carried on by them in the capital. First. — In the 
Divinity School they are training men, many of 
whom will be catechists and future clergy of the 
Church in Japan. No work could be more important, 
since all persons possessed of real knowledge of the 
country are agreed that the Japanese Church of the 
future, though perhaps a distant future, will be wholly 
Japanese ; not English, not American, not Russian. 
The process, they say, that is now being carried on, 
with full consent of the people, in things secular, will 
be repeated in things spiritual. The foreigner will 
gradually be replaced by the Japanese, and the native 
clergy, who are at present being instructed by us in 
the Faith, will have to bear the full strain of their own 
national Church. As we sow now they will reap 
then, and it is the knowledge of this that lends such 
vital importance to an institution like the Divinity 
School of S. Andrew's Mission. 

Second. — The members of S. Andrew's Mission are 
winning an influence over the educated classes of 
Tokyo. They have made a bold start in this direc- 
tion by taking two masterships in Mr. Fukuzawa's 
important College, which we visited two days later, 
and by opening the Night School and Club, whose 
members my father addressed that evening. By 
these means they have begun to attract a few of the 
thousands of young men who crowd to Tokyo from 



LIFE IN THE GREAT CAPITAL. 75 

every part of Japan, whether to study at its University 
and schools, or to seek employment in the numerous 
Government offices. 

Third. — They have undertaken evangelistic work, 
such as the charge of mission districts like those we 
had already seen at Ushigome and Kyobashi, and 
occasional preaching tours in the country near 
Tokyo. 

Their work is, therefore, not only important, but 
eminently hopeful. Yet it was sad to see how it is 
cramped, and more or less defeated by deficiency of 
numbers. We had often been told this in England, 
but our short residence in Tokyo did much to deepen 
the conviction of what we had only heard before. 
There was the great city lying all round the Mission 
House. There were the University, the schools, the 
crowded streets. We could see with our own eyes 
what my brother called " the Christian look " in the 
faces of those who had been reached by the Mission. 
We could note the effects of long unbroken heathen- 
ism on the thousands who, of necessity, were left 
untouched. 

It was scarcely strange, therefore, if we longed 
that, at whatever cost and self-sacrifice to herself, the 
Church at home should double the number of members 
in S. Andrew's Mission, and found many another like 
it ; or if we wondered again and again why, when 
six Oxford men had responded to the Bishop's call for 



76 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

help, not one representative from his own University 
was to be found in his special Mission at Tokyo. 

Oct. 7. — We had a very interesting morning in 
Ueno Park and Museum. The park is one of the 
most popular resorts in Tokyo, especially in the 
spring, when the avenue of cherry trees is in full 
blossom : but when we were there it was dry and 
dusty from the summer heat, and we could only 
picture, from the delicately-painted Japanese photo- 
graphs, wdiat it would be at other times. 

On leaving our carriage we went first to see the 
great Daibutsu, a bronze figure of Buddha, twenty- 
one feet high, and erected quite near the entrance. 
It is raised on a flight of several steps, but the work- 
manship is very rough, and it has a most unpleasing 
face. A few yards further, we passed through some 
gates into a noble avenue of fir trees, which lead up to 
a temple dedicated to Iyeyasu, the same Shogun 
(military ruler) whose grave we had seen at Nikko. 
It had on each side a row of stately stone lanterns, 
votive offerings from his followers, and beautifully 
carved with his and their crests. But its effect, as a 
whole, was sadly marred by a " switch back railway," 
which had been erected just beyond the trees for the 
amusement of visitors to the park and temples. The 
gateway at its close, and the temple beyond were 
quite equal in the magnificence of their decoration to 
those we had seen at Nikko. We spent some time 




IMAGE OF BUDDHA, IN UENO PARK, TOKYO. 



LIFE IN THE GREAT CAPITAL. 79 

in examining the carved birds and flowers, and the 
elaborate gold lacquer and mosaic work which adorned 
them, and then drove on to the Museum, a plain 
modern building in another part of the park. 

We could well have spent several mornings in 
examining its treasures. The lower floor is crowded 
with fine specimens of modern art in lacquer, china, 
and cloisonne. We only stayed a short time in 
these rooms, and went upstairs to those devoted to 
the ancient life and art of Japan. On the landing 
we passed the Mikado's state bullock-cart and 
palanquin, and a model of the state barge used by 
the Shoguns. We then entered the first room, 
which is devoted to the Historical Department. All 
the specimens are carefully arranged in glass cases, 
and, with the aid of Murray's Guide, we could follow 
the contents of each very accurately. In the first 
were relics of the stone age ; arrow and spear heads, 
and rough stone implements. Then, as we went a 
little further, we could notice the development of the 
characteristic arts of Japan : pottery, bronze work, and 
carving in ivory ; very rough at first, but improving 
with marvellous rapidity, probably when the arts of 
civilization entered the country from Korea. In the 
second room were three cases of Buddhist relics, 
seals, and incense burners, etc., and specimens of the 
earliest Japanese writing, all in Chinese characters ; 
and, just beyond them, two others devoted to Christian 



80 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

relics of the 16th and 17th centuries — the days of 
S. Francis Xavier, and, therefore, of peculiar interest 
in the eyes of a foreign visitor. 

Xavier landed in Japan in 1549, and, during his 
two and a half years' visit, he founded several 
Christian communities, who spread the knowledge of 
their faith among all classes, and this with astonishing 
success, so that in less than forty years 600,000 
persons were baptized. 

In 1587, however, the suspicion of the Government 
was roused, not at that time by the action of the 
missionaries, but by libels made upon them by the 
jealousy of the Spanish and Portuguese traders, who, 
in order to destroy each other's trade, tried to prevent 
any foreigners entering the country. It was allayed 
for a while, but manifested itself in active persecution 
in 1596, being aroused partly by the mutual jealousy 
of the Spanish and Portuguese monastic orders, and 
partly by the slanders on Christianity of the Buddhist 
priests. The Christians, now nearly a million in 
number, went through a terrible ordeal of fire and 
bloodshed, and by the middle of the 17th century their 
cause seemed hopelessly ruined. But this was by no 
means a rapid work. It took nearly half a century, 
and during the early days of the persecution some 
provinces were spared, in which Christianity con- 
tinued to flourish. It was from these provinces that 
an embassy was despatched by the daimyo of Sendai 



LIFE IN THE GREAT CAPITAL. 81 

to the Pope, and the King of Spain, and many of the 
relies we saw in the Ueno Museum, were presents 
given to its members when in Europe, which had 
been preserved by the Sendai family until a few 
years since. They included crucifixes, holy pictures, 
and rosaries, an oil painting of the ambassador in 
prayer before a crucifix, and another of him dressed 
in his Italian costume. All had evidently been 
most jealously guarded during the persecution. 

In the same cases, and of even greater interest, 
were " the ' fumisita,' or trampling boards, oblong 
blocks of metal, with figures, in high relief, of Christ 
before Pilate, the Descent from the Cross, the 
Madonna and Child, etc., on which persons suspected 
of Christianity were obliged to trample in times of 
persecution, in order to testify their abjuration of the 
despised sect."* 

Those cases were indeed a powerful witness to the 
faith and devotion of the Japanese under severe trial, 
a witness all the more important, because the attention 
of many is now caught by the bright attractiveness 
of the national character, and they rashly decide that 
there cannot be depth where there is so much of 
outward show. 

From the Christian relics we passed to a collection 
of beautiful inlaid swords and suits of armour, and 
finally visited a room containing some magnificent 
* Murray's Handbook. 



82 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

embroidered gowns. These had been worn by the 
daimyos and their followers in the old days, when 
Tokyo (Yedo) was the centre of the brilliant court 
of the Shogun, and when his master, the Mikado, 
lived in studied simplicity at Kyoto. 

In the afternoon we went to an interesting " At 
Home," given by Mrs. Kirkes at her house in Nagata 
Cho. She had invited a large number of the Japanese 
nobles and Government officials and their wives, who 
were desirous to meet my father. By means of in- 
terpretation, and in some cases by their knowledge 
of English, we had a great deal of interesting con- 
versation. 

Since the refusal of the European Governments to 
sign the revised Treaty, which would put foreigners in 
Japan under Japanese law, the highest classes have 
kept a great deal to themselves, and it was a remark- 
able testimony to Mrs. Kirkes' influence that so many 
came that afternoon. Among her guests were the 
President of the House of Peers ; the son of the Prime 
Minister ; the Vice-Minister of Education ; the Foreign 
Minister's wife ; the Empress' Vice-Chamberlain, and 
one of her ladies-in-waiting. Many of them were in 
full Japanese, others in foreign dress ; but all greeted 
us with that exquisite courtesy that one would have 
imagined to be more characteristic of France under 
the old regime than of the hurried life of this 19th 
century. 



LIFE IN THE GEE AT CAPITAL. 83 

A very clever Japanese juggler was present to fill 
up intervals of conversation, and just before we left, 
Countess Saigos's little daughter, a charming little 
damsel of about five years of age, dressed in pale 
blue crepe, danced for us. It was a quaint dignified 
dance, accompanied by the singing of an attendant, 
and by much rapid twisting of a sash held by the child. 

It was at this " At Home " that a man of high 
position, himself an unbeliever, said to my father that 
Japan would become Christian, and that on the lines 
of the Church of England, with certain national 
modifications. 

Oct. 8. — The following morning we were occupied 
in different ways. My father and brother were busy 
at S. Andrew's House ; Mrs. Bickersteth and Mrs. Shaw 
(wife of the Archdeacon) were preparing the large 
room of the Divinity School for a reception which 
my brother was to hold that evening for the English 
residents of Tokyo and Yokohama ; and I was hearing 
from Miss Thornton all about the evangelistic work 
of S. Hilda's Mission. 

This work includes (a) the training of Japanese 
women, both ladies and people of the lower classes, as 
evangelists to their own countrywomen. The pupils 
are divided for this purpose into three classes, according 
to their knowledge of Christianity. Every effort is 
made not to Anglicize them, but to train them in 
such a manner that they may bring Christian ideals 

G 2 



84 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

into ordinary Japanese home life, (b) The regular 
instruction given in the school for high-class girls. 
(c) The care of all work among women in the Kyo- 
bashi and Ushigome Mission Districts, such as classes 
for enquirers and catechumens, or addresses to patients 
at the dispensaries, such as I had heard at Kyobashi 
on September 24th. 

The evangelistic work is very hopeful ; but, as at 
S. Andrew's Mission, we could see how serious is the 
need of further first-rate English workers if the S. 
Hilda ladies are in any way to respond to the opportu- 
nities opening out before them. At present such oppor- 
tunities are continually allowed to pass unheeded, for 
want of English missionaries to initiate or superintend 
the new work which they would involve. This is 
specially the case in the medical department of the 
Mission, where Nurse Grace already does the work of 
three ordinary nurses, and time and strength would 
equally forbid any extension of her work. 

I returned to S. Andrew's House after lunch, and 
during the afternoon, through a kind invitation from 
a leading Japanese barrister, we were able to witness 
the Cha No Yu, or Ceremonial Tea Drinking, in full 
perfection at his private house. Instead of the abso- 
lute silence generally enforced on such occasions, we had 
the advantage of explanations given by him in English, 
and could closely follow each stage of the proceedings. 

No diligent student of Japanese life and manners 



LIFE IN THE GBEAT CAPITAL. 85 

can have failed to come across allusions to this 
famous Ceremonial Tea Drinking, which, though 
rapidly dying out in the atmosphere of modern 
innovations, is still reckoned part of the necessary 
education of people in good society, and, by its 
deliberate dignity, gives a crowning touch to the 
foreigner's impression of this peculiarly courteous 
people. 

Our host and his very attractive wife and children 
lived in a quiet part of the great city, and the paper 
walls of their pretty wooden house were drawn aside 
that afternoon to admit the soft summer air from the 
quaint garden. AYe, as the English visitors, were 
ushered into the " foreign room," with an orthodox 
round table and chairs, but the screens between it 
and the next room had been pushed aside, and so, 
without causing any disturbance, we could comfortably 
watch every gesture of the Japanese hostess and the 
four guests. 

The ceremony, to put it shortly, consisted in the 
preparation of a single cup of tea, but when it must 
be added that nearly two hours were required to bring- 
about this great result, some idea will be formed of 
the innumerable details involved. 

First, as to the guests. The number of their bows 
in entering, or in sitting down ; or in passing the cup ; 
or in acknowledging any little act of the hostess, were 
truly astonishing, yet each was prescribed by rule. 



86 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

The hostess, on her side, followed an equally strict 
etiquette ; and in the number of steps she took in 
approaching the little stove where the precious liquid 
was to be brewed ; in the quantity and arrangement 
of the pieces of charcoal she used on it ; and in the 
various motions needed to suitably brush the kettle 
and tongs, and lay down the spoons, etc., she never 
failed in the smallest particular, nor abated one iota 
of the absolute absence of hurry and tedium of detail 
so necessary to a perfect observance of the Tea 
Ceremony. 

Four distinct stages were observed ; the arrival 
of the guests and preparation of the stove ; the 
making of the tea ; the partaking of it by the 
guests ; and the admiration by the guests of each 
implement, which, as our host remarked, had " con- 
tributed to so delightful a feast." 

Let us note a few remarkable points in each. The 
room was empty, except for the stove, and a tiny 
table a few inches high to hold the cups, etc. The 
kettle was boiled with much solemnity, but at the 
crucial moment its contents were diluted with several 
spoonfuls of cold water ! No teapot was used, but 
fine green powdered tea was stirred up with a little 
whisk. One cup sufficed for the four guests, and each, 
as he or she received it, twisted it three times and 
took a prescribed number of sips. A different motion 
was employed in passing it from a man to a woman, 



LIFE IN THE GREAT CAPITAL. 87 

and vice versa, and deep bows and prostrations filled 
up every interval in the entertainment. 

Our wonder grew, and it is to be hoped our 
patience deepened, as the strange elaborate ceremony 
proceeded. But towards its close a clue as to its 
charms for the Japanese mind was certainly given by 
our kind host, when he explained that it had been 
founded by Hideyoshi, one of the most famous 
generals of Japan, in a very warlike time when men's 
minds were much agitated. Hideyoshi had therefore 
devised the Cha No Yu, and ordered its ob- 
servance in strict silence before every secret meeting 
of his officers to "calm the spirits," and prevent 
undue haste in any important decision. 

On my return to S. Hilda's House, I had a long 
talk with Miss Snowden on the Mission school, and 
thus gained an interesting glimpse into the ordinary 
education of a girl of good position in Japan. 

The modern standard of education is very high, 
and, in order to keep up with it, a Mission school 
must provide a first-rate staff of Japanese masters 
and mistresses, the special attraction to the parents 
of the pupils being the extra advantages in learning 
English offered by the foreign ladies in charge. 
English is now taught as well as Chinese * in many 
of the upper-grade schools throughout Japan ; but as 
the instruction is in most cases given by Japanese, the 
* See note D. 



88 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

grammar and pronunciation acquired by the pupils is 
often very faulty. Therefore, parents of the upper 
middle class, being increasingly anxious to have their 
daughters not only well educated, but able to talk to 
a foreign visitor, will often allow them to attend a 
mission school, in spite of the stipulation that regular 
Christian instruction will be included in the school 
course. 

S. Hilda's School has about tort}' pupils, and is 
divided into four departments. I. The Jingo Sho 
Gakko, or Kindergarten. II. The Koto Sho Gakko, 
or Upper Kindergarten. III. The Chu Gakko, or 
Middle School. IV. The College Class. This arrange- 
ment is in strict accordance with that of an ordinary 
Japanese school. 

I. The Jingo Sho Gakko, or Kindergarten. In order 
to use this name, a teacher certificated by Govern- 
ment has to be employed, and the school is then 
recognized and examined by Government officials. 
The course is as follows : Reading, writing, arithmetic 
(English and Japanese), manners, morals, and English, 
the teachers being Otoke San, Takida San, and Miss 
Snowden. When Miss Snowden mentioned " Morals," 
I wondered what the pretty party of babies I had seen 
in the school had to do with so serious a subject ; but 
she soon relieved my anxiety. It meant the learning 
of short stories from Confucius, etc., such as, " Two 
boys each had a parcel of cakes ; one divided them 



LIFE IN THE GREAT CAPITAL. 89 

among his neighbours, but the other ate them all 
himself, and was very ill next day ! " When the 
children grew older, she said, " morals " would include 
more elaborate lessons on filial piety, etc. 

I was much interested to hear of the wonderful 
quickness of these Kindergarten pupils in arithmetic. 
Little mites of six were doing fractions, and would 
soon, Miss Snowden said, come to cube root. 

II. The Koto Sho Gakko, or Upper Kindergarten. 
The course in this department takes three years, and 
the teachers are the same as in the Lower Kinder- 
garten, but science and geography are added to the 
list of subjects. 

III. The Chu Gakko, or Middle School. This has 
four classes, and the course seemed to me very 
varied. Matsunaye San, an old but clever master, 
teaches Chinese, writing, reading, composition, and also 
domestic economy. Nagahashi San, Churchwarden of 
S. Andrew's, Shiba, and quite a father to all the 
pupils, teaches translation in every class except that of 
the babies. Kaneko San, a lady teacher, gives lessons 
in old Japanese poetry, composition, and reading, as 
distinct from Chinese. Kishinone San, a graduate of 
the University, teaches science, zoology, and botany 
once a week to the senior girls. Besides these lessons 
Japanese needlework is taught once a week, as all ladies 
learn to make their own clothes. The stitches are put 
in by exact measurement, and an inch-rule of wood 



90 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

or ivory is a necessary part of every work-box. In 
many cases this rule is affixed to the side of the box, 
and the scissors are curled at the points, instead of 
being crossed, as in England. English needlework, 
singing, and drawing closed the list of subjects — cer- 
tainly a very long one ; but the girls of Japan seem 
quite as eager as the boys in their thirst for learning. 

IV. The College Class. This is for very advanced 
pupils and only included one girl at the time we 
were in Tokyo, as very few are allowed to stay long 
enough to attain to its standard, their help being 
needed at home. 

Miss Snowden then explained to me the course of 
religious teaching given in the school. It was briefly 
this : Sunday ; a voluntary afternoon Bible class of 
enquirers, which was often well attended, but many 
girls were kept back by home opposition ; a lesson 
on the Prayer-book in the evening to the senior 
Christian girls. Monday ; a lesson given by the Eev. 
Imai Toshimichi to the Christian pupils. Wednesday ; 
a lesson by the Rev. C. N. Yoshizawa to the non- 
Christians. Thursday ; the senior Christian pupils 
attend Miss Thornton's class for communicants. 

The School is never without catechumens, and she 
told me many interesting stories of them. For in- 
stance, one of the first who asked to be baptized was 
an only child, and the darling of her home. Her 
father was a gentleman of good position, and when 



LIFE IN THE GREAT CAPITAL. 91 

she mentioned the subject to him, he said that he 
could not prevent her by law, but that he would never 
speak to her again if she became a Christian. She 
stood firm, and was baptized ; but behaved so well 
afterwards in her home that the father relented, and 
treats her much as before. She was confirmed, and is 
a regular communicant of S. Andrew's Church. She 
took the greatest interest in her Confirmation, and 
said afterwards : " My heart feels like a bird set loose 
in the fields." 

Another girl came from the neighbourhood of a 
large city, many hours' journey by rail from Tokyo. 
She was only fifteen, and still reckoned the " tom- 
boy " of the neighbourhood, when she first heard of 
Christianity. With characteristic vigour she begged 
leave from her parents to visit some relations in 
Tokyo, and learn more about its teaching. They 
consented, and the relations sent her to S. Hilda's 
School. There she was carefully taught, and baptized 
late in 1889, being confirmed and receiving her 
first Communion in 1890. Her parents then sent for 
her to return home, and she has never been able to 
visit Tokyo since. But the Mission ladies correspond 
regularly with her, and she tells them she always 
keeps Sunday, reading her Bible and singing some 
hymns at the times of the service in S. Andrew's 
Church, Tokyo. 

Miss Snowden said that some of the pupils are 



92 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

Christians at heart, but are kept from baptism by 
home opposition. Others seem as yet indifferent to 
the missionaries' influence ; but from all she told me, 
it was impossible not to gain a deeper insight into 
the valuable work of S. Hilda's School. 



( 93 ) 



CHAPTER V. 

FURTHER JOTTINGS FROM OUR TOKYO JOURNALS. 

Oct. 9. — The following morning the two Bishops and 
Mrs. Bickersteth visited the principal cemetery of 
Tokyo. My father notes in his diary : " We went 
to the great cemetery this morning. It was most sug- 
gestive of recent progress to find the portion of 
ground, perhaps half an acre, where the Christians were 
buried, and also to see many graves surmounted with 
a cross scattered now and then among the heathen 
monuments. It is only during the last few years 
they have allowed Christians to be buried in Tokyo. 
Mr. Williams, C.M.S. missionary here, had to take his 
infant to be buried at Yokohama, but now there is 
no difficulty. The cemetery is beautifully kept. The 
most costly stones are rough-hewn, with only a 
smooth tablet for the graven incription." 

Meanwhile, Nurse Grace took me to Yokohama, to 
choose a number of photographs of the various places 
we had already seen. Japanese excel in photography, 
especially in the art of colouring. They do not paint 
the photograph when complete, but add the colour 



94 



JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 



while it is still half-developed, and the effect is 
extremely good. They charge very little for their 
photographs, two yen (about 6s. 8c?.) for two dozen 
large coloured ones, and rather less for uncoloured. 
We soon made a delightful collection of different 
scenes of Japanese life and of the places we had 
visited. It was curious to notice that any photograph 




FJiOM A PHOTOGHAPH OF WOOD-CARVING AT NIKKO. 



of costumes previous to the Kevolution (1868) was 
marked " ancient times," and the attempts at English 
in this shop, and in others we saw afterwards, were 
delightful. " Spelling cotton " for " spinning cotton "; 
" Bird's in viw " for " bird's-eye view," and so on. 

We returned to Tokyo by 2 p.m., and in the after- 
noon my brother took us to see the great Keiogijiku 

* The monkeys are supposed to be saying- : " Hear nothing you 
should not hear ; say nothing you should not say ; see nothing 
you should not see." 



FURTHER JOTTINGS FROM OUR TOKYO JOURNALS. 95 

College and University (pronounced Kay-o-ghee-gee- 
koo). It is in the district of Mita, and not very far 
from S. Andrew's House. Its pupils, 1600 in number, 
from little fellows of eight or nine to full-grown men 
of twenty-three, come from every part of Japan, and 
in the University Department the senior students 
can graduate as fully as in the Imperial University. 
They not only stand on very much the same level as 
University students, but as regards social position, 
they rank, if anything, higher. The Keiogijiku 
University Department has only been recently estab- 
lished, and is mainly intended for the scholars of 
the College to pass into, in order to complete their 
studies. It, however, differs from the Imperial Uni- 
versity in two ways : (1) it is not endowed; (2) the 
pupils are less likely to receive Government appoint- 
ments. Both University and College were founded 
by Mr. Fukuzawa, one of the men who made 
modern Japan. Professor Chamberlain writes of him, 
in " Things Japanese," as " a real power in the land, 
writing with admirable clearness, publishing a popular 
newspaper,* not keeping too far ahead of the times ; 
in favour of Christianity to-day, because its adop- 
tion might gain for Japan the good-will of Western 
nations ; all eagerness for Buddhism to-morrow, because 
Buddhist doctrines can be better reconciled with those 
of evolution and development ; pro and anti-foreign 
* The Jiji Shimpo — the " Times " of Japan. 



96 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

by turns, inquisitive, clever, not over-ballasted with 
judicial calmness ; this eminent private schoolmaster, 
who might be Minister of Education, but who has 
consistently refused all office, is the intellectual father 
of half the young men who now fill the middle and 
lower posts in the Government of Japan." 

Some years since, the Eev. A. Lloyd, S.P.GL, 
formerly Dean of Peterhouse, Cambridge, obtained 
leave from Mr. Fukuzawa to hold an English master- 
ship in his college, with the understanding that he 
might also give Christian instruction out of school 
hours. Much valuable influence was exercised by 
him, several of his pupils being baptized ; but on 
his regretted retirement in 1890, owing to his wife's 
ill -health, the work would have collapsed had not 
S. Andrew's Mission taken it in hand. 

The Rev. H. Moore became Lecturer in Latin, and 
the Rev. L. F. Ryde, Lecturer in Sociology, both in 
the University Department, During 1891, by an 
anonymous donation of a thousand pounds to the 
Japan Mission Fund, the Bishop was able to hire a 
house in the school compound formerly occupied by 
Mr. Lloyd, and a first-rate centre for missionary work 
and influence. It was this house, and also part of the 
College, that we went to visit that afternoon, under 
the guidance of Mr. Moore. The house is simply 
furnished in Japanese style, containing rooms for 
six boarders (Christian pupils in the school), a small 



FURTHER JOTTINGS FROM OUR TOKYO JOURNALS. 99 

Chapel, some capital class-rooms, and a sitting-room, 
where the pupils can have private talks with their 
masters. The bedrooms looked very bare to English 
eyes. On the tatami (matted floor) there was a table 
a few inches high, and a pile of books beside it, in- 
cluding a large dictionary, and probably a copy of 
John Stuart Mill or Herbert Spencer, which are the 
present ideals of young Japan. Each room had its 
reading-lamp, but not one gave us an idea that it 
was used as a bedroom, for the futons (quilts) which 
make a Japanese bed, were put away -in a wall cup- 
board with sliding doors. 

The Keiogijiku itself is a group of modern red- 
brick buildings surrounded by a large playground, in 
which we saw a number of students being drilled. 
The seniors were in the charge of a sergeant ; but 
the juniors, in small companies of ten or twelve, were 
being ordered about by boys of their own age— a 
proceeding rather difficult to imagine in an English 
school, but evidently very successful in Japan. 

The larger number of students live in boardino- 
houses close to the College. They come, as we said 
before, from every part of the Empire, quiet country 
villages often collecting a fund to send up a promising- 
boy to Tokyo. Should, however, supplies from home 
be cut off, it is very unlikely these boys will give up 
their course, for they are possessed of an energy and 
enthusiasm for knowledge that seems to know no 

h 2 



100 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

bounds. They are in every sense representative of 
the active life of modern Japan, not of the small 
clique of nobles who have lived in more or less 
retirement since the Restoration, nor of the peasants, 
with their slower intelligence ; but of the samurai (the 
scholars and soldiers of the old regime), and the 
farmers, who together form the powerful middle class- 
of the present Empire. 

It is scarcely surprising, therefore, that Mr. Moore- 
was able to tell us of one boy who pulled a jinriksha 
each evening, and of another who sold newspapers 
daily from 4 to 7 a.m., in order to earn the necessary 
school fees. 

About twenty-eight students are now Christians,, 
and attend very regularly the daily Evensong in the 
Mission House Chapel, and the early Celebration 
of Holy Communion on Sundays. Non-Christians, 
come in increasing numbers to the instruction classes 
which are held by the missionaries, some from 
curiosity, others from a real dissatisfaction with their 
own creeds. 

1 shall not easily forget the bright face of one boy 
when I asked him if he was a catechumen, and he 
answered, with much emphasis, in English, " No ; but 
I want to be ! " 

Mr. Moore had some interesting stories to tell us 
of the firmness of those who had been already bap- 
tized. For instance, the annual school holiday was. 



FURTHER JOTTINGS FROM OUR TOKYO JOURNALS. 101 

observed last year on a Sunday, and the missionaries 
did not consider it wise to compel the Christians to 
abstain from joining in it ; but one boy came to them 
and said his conscience forbade him to do so, and he 
stood the ridicule of the school rather than give way. 

From the Keiogijiku we went to the Mission Church, 
built by Mr. Lloyd for the pupils, and filled by them 
every Sunday morning. It is a plain building, with 
a bamboo reredos and black wooden cross, but it was 
well kept, and used not only by the students, but 
by a general congregation from the Mita district. 

We could not but feel, as we, returned home, that 
the Keiogijiku College, with the Mission House in its 
precincts, and the little Church in the neighbouring 
street, would be vividly stamped on our minds as 
one of the most interesting branches of S. Andrew's 
Mission. 

Oct. 10. — After breakfast Mr. Moore took us to 
visit the Imperial University. It is built in the 
grounds of the former daimyo of Kaga, in a district 
of the city called Kanda, five miles from S. Andrew's 
House. The buildings, all in modern style, cover 
a large extent of ground, and include separate 
€olleges for law, medicine, architecture, engineering, 
literature, science, and agriculture. The students are 
about 700 in number, and live in boarding-houses 
outside the University grounds. They know nothing 
of college life as we understand the term in England, 



102 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

as they only visit the colleges for lectures, and 
never live in them. The University is a State in- 
stitution, and claims the title of Imperial. It was 
founded by the Government in 1856, and its first 
name was " Place for the Examination of Barbarian 
Writings ; " but seven years later this was changed 
to the " Place for Developing and Completing " — a 
curious witness, as " Murray" suggests, to the progress 
of Japanese thought during the interval. 

Professor Dickson kindly showed us round every 
department, and gave us much valuable information 
about their working. He said that the medical and 
philosophical departments were in German hands, 
and the rest in English and American ; but that many 
leading professors were now Japanese, foreigners being 
dispensed with as soon as possible. 

The first attraction is the library, which has lecture 
rooms attached to it. The collection of books (seven- 
teen thousand) is good ; but as they were ordered pro- 
miscuously by various professors, they are greatly in 
need of organization by one mind ; that is, if they are 
ever to become a living whole. From the library we 
went to the colleges for architecture, engineering, 
and science. It was very suggestive of the continued 
fascination of the West for Japan to see photographs 
and ground-plans of Italian buildings in the same 
room with " sections " of the Mikado's new palace. 
And yet more so to find every modern development 



FURTHER JOTTINGS FROM OUR TOKYO JOURNALS. 103 

of engineering in a city whose inhabitants forty years 
ago had never seen a steamboat. 

The Professor said that any missionary influence 
would have to be exercised from outside the University. 
It would be impossible to gain a place within the 
limits of its curriculum, as this excludes all direct 
religious instruction, even in Buddhism and Shintoism, 
Buddhism being only taught as a phase of philosophy. 
Nevertheless, it was encouraging to hear from him 
that there are a certain number of Christians among 
the students, who have formed a Young Men's Chris- 
tian Association. It is managed with characteristic 
independence by themselves, all foreign influence 
being jealously excluded from it. 

Before we left we had a short but very interesting 
visit to the Practising Hospital in connection with 
the College of Medicine. A crowd was waiting at 
the door, and every bed in the wards we entered 
was occupied. The nurses, dressed in white, seemed 
numerous, and everything looked well kept, but ex- 
tremely unlike an English hospital. True, the beds 
were of foreign make, instead of Japanese, but each 
patient had a little crowd of friends, who sat on the 
floor near him or her, made and took tea, talked, and 
by no means added to the general airiness ! But 
then, as we mentioned in the account of S. Hilda's 
Medical Mission, relations and friends are allowed 
to visit daily in an ordinary Japanese hospital, and 



104 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

to stay as long as they like, or even through the 
night. 

That evening we dined with Mr. and Mrs. M. It 
proved to be a regular Japanese dinner party, and 
most interesting and amusing. Our host, a lead- 
ing barrister in Tokyo, had visited England, and was 
a Bencher of Lincoln's Inn. He therefore talked 
English fluently — no small advantage to us, as, not- 
withstanding my brother's help, whenever we left the 
ordinary line of hotels and sight-seeing, we found our 
ignorance of Japanese to be a very real loss. 

Mr. M. had invited some other English friends to 
meet us, but otherwise the entertainment from first 
to last was delightfully Japanese. Our jinrikshas 
drew up at the garden door, where some servants met 
us, holding Chinese lanterns in their hands. They 
conducted us to the house, down a narrow, stony 
path, dimly lighted by different coloured fires, and by 
lanterns suspended on long bamboo rods. Arrived 
at the house, we left our shoes in the verandah, and 
were immediately ushered into a large, double re- 
ception-room. It had the usual matted floor and 
paper-screen walls ; but on the frieze above the 
screens there were some boards painted with Japanese 
mottoes, and also a picture of our host in his legal 
robes. The room had no furniture excepting the large 
dinner-table, half a foot high, and made of elaborately- 
carved black wood. It had the appearance of being 



FURTHER JOTTINGS FROM OUR TOKYO JOURNALS. 105 

one table, but was really eight little ones pushed close 
together, so as to bring the guests within ea^y 
•distance of each other. At the four corners stood an 
andon, or high candlestick, with a paper shade, and 
a pale-blue silk cushion marked the place of each guest. 
In a few minutes we sat down ; and it must be 
acknowledged that we all got extremely stiff sitting 
on our heels for over two hours, in spite of being able 
to vary the position now and then by sitting sideways, 
the only really important point being to conceal one's 
feet. But it was more than worth while to sit thus 
cramped in order to be able to picture a true Japanese 
feast ; and, with a few hints from our friends, we were 
enabled to get on without, it is to be hoped, any 
serious breach of etiquette. The first course was tea 
and coloured sugar flowers, followed by about fifteen 
other courses, with a short pause between each, and 
a general likeness to each other, though the changes 
were run & with great cleverness on varieties of fish 
(including raw fish), curry, rice, soup, ginger, salad, 
chestnuts, and sake. Each course was arranged on 
lovely scarlet or black lacquer trays. The food — an 
exactly similar amount for each guest — was served in 
little lacquer or china bowls ; and the tray was then 
placed before us, and a pair of chop-sticks laid beside 
it. When everybody was served, people began to eat 
at the same moment, and we soon managed our chop- 
sticks with considerable dexteritv. As all the world 



106 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

knows, both must be held in the right hand, and the 
only chance of success is to keep the lower one steady. 
Even then, in manipulating a fish, the temptation is 




JAPANESE FISH MERCHANT. 



intense to steady the slippery morsel by taking a 
chop-stick in each hand ; but we only yielded in cases 
of genuine necessity. All through dinner a company 
of Japanese musicians — the most famous in Tokyo — 



FURTHER JOTTINGS FROM OUR TOKYO JOURNALS. 107 

discoursed music on kotos and samisens in the next 
room ; and directly the meal was over our kind host 
offered to show us his valuable collection of old 
swords. In former days, when every samurai wore 
two swords, the art of sword-making was brought 
to a wonderful perfection in Japan. But already 
American and English curio-collectors have made a 
genuine specimen of the old work very difficult to 
obtain ; and we were, therefore, deeply interested 
in Mr. M.'s collection. Some of his swords were 
400 years old, and one had belonged to a famous 
hero, and was worth its weight in gold. They were 
brought in one by one from the " godown" (or fire- 
proof house) in the garden, and he made us notice the 
maker's mark on each. It was neither a name nor a 
badge, but some small variation in the long, winding 
line that marked where the edge was welded to the 
back of the blade. He kindly went through a few 
cuts and passes for our edification ; and being in full 
Japanese costume, we could fancy for a moment how 
terrible must have been the onslaught of a warrior 
in the old days. We left about 10.30, much delighted 
with our entertainment, and the possessors of a fare- 
well gift of a large box of sugar sweets. 

Oct. 11. — Another beautiful Sunday, warm as a 
June day in England. My father went to Yokohama 
in the morning, and preached, by request of the 
chaplain, the Eev. E. C Irwine, to a crowded congre- 



108 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

gation of English residents, and also inspected the 
work of the Seamen's Mission. Meantime, my brother 
was preaching at S. Andrew's Church, his sermon 
being an answer to a book recently put forth by 
the Unitarians, who, as a missionary body, are very 
active in Japan. 

It was impossible not to be struck with the present 
complication of religious matters in the country, as 
compared with the days of Xavier. Then, on the one 
side, there w T as the Buddhist-Shinto creed, undermined 
by no Western science, still powerful in its attraction 
for the popular mind, and presenting a more or less 
solid resistance to the foreign missionary ; and, on 
the other, Christianity as represented by Roman 
Catholicism, imperfect truly, but without a rival in 
dogma or in ritual. 

Now, the ranks of Buddhist-Shintoism are hope- 
lessly broken ; the superstition of its votaries is 
exposed by the strong light of modern science, and 
their enthusiasm too often quenched in the deeper 
darkness of atheism. Christianity, though present in 
much greater force than in the days of' Xavier, is, 
alas, not proportionately stronger. The divisions of 
Christendom are nowhere more evident than in its 
foreign missions to an intellectual people like the 
Japanese. The Greek, the Roman, the Anglican 
Churches, the endless "splits" of Nonconformity 
must and do present to the Japanese mind a 



FURTHER JOTTINGS FROM OUR TOKYO JOURNALS. 109" 

bewildering selection of possibilities in religious 
truth. 

Yet, to one who considers the question from the 
standpoint of the Anglican Communion, there is hope 
even in this most difficult of problems. 

If certain national characteristics more than others 
stand out clearly in the past and present history of 
Japan, they are these : — First, the national reverence 
for historical truth ; second, the national appreciation 
of order, whether in things secular or spiritual ; 
third, the national patriotism, sufficiently humble to 
learn from outsiders, but infinitely too proud to per- 
manently resign itself to foreign guidance. 

Will a nation with characteristics like these em- 
brace Roman Catholicism, with its inevitable ac- 
ceptance of a foreign Papacy ? Will it find satisfaction 
in the lack of order and the limited teachings of Non- 
conformity ? Will it in any case be able to success- 
fully imitate the political and social reforms of modern 
Europe without the religious foundation on which 
each one has been based ? 

These questions cannot be avoided. Rather, the 
next fifty years will undoubtedly have to answer 
them. But, as we said before, it is a truly hopeful 
element in their due consideration by one of our 
Communion that, under the guidance of the English 
and American bishops, the Nippon Sei Ko Kwai, or 
Holy Catholic Church in Japan, is now a reality, a 



110 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

living factor in the case. In point of numbers it, the 
infant national Church, is greatly outdone by other 
bodies ; but in moral weight, and in rapidity of 
increase,* it is, in the opinion of those well-qualified 
to judge, greatly in advance of these. 

The very hopefulness of its work, carried out by 
a slender body of workers, and with very limited 
support, lays a heavy responsibility on our Church. 
Let her refuse to estimate the present moment at its 
due value, and this opportunity of winning a great 
nation of marked individuality to a practical recog- 
nition of the Faith may never recur. 

On Sunday afternoon Ruth S., the infant daughter 
of the Japanese friends who had invited us the previous 
week to witness the Ceremonial Tea Drinking, was 
baptized in S. Andrew's Church. Her mother was a 
Christian, but not so her father, though he gave his 
full sanction to the religious views of his family, and it 
was at his special request that Mrs. Bickersteth stood 
sponsor to the baby. 

Oct. 12. — After a quiet morning we spent the, 
afternoon in an interesting visit to the great Buddhist 
temple of Sensoji, dedicated to Kwannon, the Goddess 
of Mercy, and built quite close to the Ueno 
Park and Museum. The actual entrance gate is 
destroyed, and in its place is a narrow street of small 
red-brick shops, filled with toys, china and lacquer 

* Its numbers increased fourfold between 1888 and 1891. 



FURTHER JOTTINGS FROM OUR TOKYO JOURNALS. Ill 

goods, intended to attract the worshippers on their 
way to the temple services. Passing through this street 
we entered a large courtyard, and at once noticed the 
flock of sacred pigeons, who hovered above us, and 
eagerly ate the grain offered them every few minutes 
by the people. 

The temple itself is very large, and coloured 
bright red. The central hall is 102 feet square, but 
the shrine of Kwannon is shut off by lattice-work, 
and we could only look through, and watch the 
numerous priests who knelt before the altars, while 
the noisy crowd of worshippers outside chattered 
gaily to each other, pausing occasionally to drop a 
small copper coin in the money boxes, clap their 
hands, and mutter a short prayer. Little stalls were 
erected here and there about the building, at which 
priests carried on a good traffic in pictures of 
Kwannon, and near one door we noticed an image of 
the god Binzuru, the helper of the sick. He was 
very fat and very ugly, and his limbs were half 
worn away by the rubbing of the faithful. One of 
them, a poor woman, came up as we stood there, 
diligently rubbed his body and then her own, with 
evidently no doubt in his power to help her. 
Altogether the temple presented a sad and irreverent 
scene, and we were glad to return to the courtyard, 
where we spent a few minutes before the stable of the 
sacred horse, a spiritless-looking white animal, whose 



112 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

life seemed likely to be seriously shortened by the 
little plates of beans placed before him every few 
seconds by his admirers. Outside the actual court- 
yard were large grounds filled with tea-shops, 
small theatres, sweet stalls, and performing animals, 
which reminded us far more of an English Bank- 
holiday scene than the approach to a temple. We 
passed quickly through them, and returned to S. 
Andrew's House, feeling that the Sensoji temple of 
Kwannon was decidedly the most remarkable specimen 
yet brought before us of the vulgar, irreverent side 
of heathenism in Tokyo. 

In the evening we dined at the British Legation, 
the Minister and Mrs. Fraser having invited a large 
party of friends to meet us. The house is not 
large, but the rooms are comfortably furnished, and 
the chrysanthemums in the dining-room were lovely. 
We specially noticed five low baskets of large white 
blossoms edged with a border of tiny yellow ones, 
which were placed in the centre of the table. 

Oct. 13. — This was our last day in Tokyo, and it 
was fully occupied with farewells to the many friends 
who had welcomed us to the capital. In the after- 
noon there was an interesting gathering of Japanese 
Church workers at S. Andrew's House. About sixty 
came, nearly all men ; and after Evensong in the 
Church, at which my father gave them an address 
by interpretation, they gathered in the drawing- 



FURTHER JOTTINGS FROM OUR TOKYO JOURNALS. 113 

room for tea and cake, and presented him with a 
photograph of his reception by all the Christians on 
Sept. 26. As Archdeacon Shaw remarked, we had 
certainly been connected with the early days of the 
Church in Tokyo, every Japanese present having 
beoun life as a heathen. In the evening; we went 
to a pleasant " At Home " given by the members of 
the American Church Mission, and were introduced 
to nearly all their workers. 



114 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 



CHAPTER VI. 

MIYANOSHITA AND NAGOYA. 

Oct. 14. — We were now to leave Tokyo for a month's 
tour among some of the other mission stations of the 
Church in Japan. According to the latest calculations, 
and including all English, American, and wholly 
Japanese Missions, there are now 189 stations of 
the Church scattered in various parts of Hondo (the 
Main Island), Yezo, Kiushiu, and Awaji. Many 
of them are extremely small, consisting of a few 
Christians in charge of a catechist among many 
thousands of surrounding heathen. Others, like Tokyo 
and Osaka, number a fairly large staff of foreign 
clergy, and possess good educational establishments. 
My brother has appointed three Archdeacons * to help 
him in the general superintendence of the Missions, 
the great distance he has to travel during the year 
making their help in their respective Archdeaconries 
specially valuable during his necessarily prolonged 
tours in different parts of Japan. 

* Archdeacon Shaw, North Japan ; Archdeacon Warren, Mid 
Japan ; Archdeacon Maundrell, South Japan. 



MIYANOSHITA AND NAGOYA. 115 

The American Mission owes mncli of its success to 
Bishop Williams. He has now retired from active 
work, but still lives in Tokyo, and does as much as 
his health permits in the mission station. Since 
his retirement, in 1889, no other American Bishop 
has succeeded to his work; but in 1890 and 1891 
Bishop Hare, of Dakota, paid a visit to Japan for the 
purpose of assisting at the General Synod of the 
Church,* and taking Confirmations, etc. 

Our limited time made it impossible that my father 
should inspect more than a few of the principal stations 
of the Church in Japan besides Tokyo, and for the 
same reason we could not go to the northern Island 
of Yezo, though the work there among the savage 
tribes of the Ainu is of peculiar interest. 

With these necessary exceptions, my brother's 
careful arrangements brought nearly every kind of 
missionary work before us, and we also received a 
vivid impression of the country and city life in the 
south of Japan, an impression quite distinct from 
that produced by Tokyo, and far more suggestive 
of the old days before the Revolution. 

We left Tokyo by the early morning train on the 
14th en route to Miyanoshita, a favourite hill station 
of both foreigners and Japanese, and often used as a 
sanatorium by people living in China. Our party 
included my father and brother, Mr. Cholmondeley, 
* See note C. 

I 2 



116 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

(S. Andrew's Mission), Mrs. Bickersteth, and myself ; 
and we found the platform quite thronged with people 
who had come to say a final good-bye. 

My father notes in his diary : " It was really quite 
touching to find so many Japanese Christians as well 
as English friends on the railway platform to bid us 
God-speed on our journey. The warm grasp of hand, 
the light in the eye, the tones of the voice, all told 
what warm hearts these Japanese Christians have. 
They claim our love and labour." 

The journey to Miyanoshita took about five and a 

half hours. We went first by train along the sea 

coast to a place called Kozu, where we entered the 

comfortable tramcar to Yumoto, driving along the 

famous old " Tokaido " road, the route in old days 

of the daimyos and their bands of armed retainers 

as they came up from the country to their palaces 

(Yashiki) in Yedo. We then went up a beautiful 

mountain pass in jinrikshas to Miyanoshita, which is 

1400 feet above the sea, and famous for its hot mineral 

springs. The Fuji-ya Hotel, where we stayed three 

days, is considered the best foreign hotel in Japan. 

We certainly found it most comfortable, and the 

waiting maids in full Japanese costume redeemed it 

from being prosaic. From the hotel itself, and from 

the village street we could look down the valley to 

the Bay of Odawara, and by a short climb above the 

village we could get a fine view of Mount Fuji. It 



MIYANOSHITA AND NAOOYA. 119 

was only very gradually that we realized the fascina- 
tion of this mountain for the Japanese ; but as day 
after day the charm of the many mountain ranges of 
Japan grew upon us, and yet Mount Fuji always 
towered above all, lightly touched with snow even 
after the great heat of summer, we could understand 
how it seemed to them the ideal of everything lofty 
and pure and poetical.* 

Oct. 15. — After breakfast we spent an hour in the 
famous inlaid wood shops of Miyanoshita. They 
are mere rough sheds, open to the village street, 
but filled with fascinating screens, cabinets, and 
endless small odds and ends, the owners sitting 
inside, bowing, smiling, and chattering volumes of 
Japanese, with an occasional word of English to tempt 
the foreigners, and show their acquaintance with our 
nation. We soon learned to say"ifcra?" ("How 
much?") and "Amaril" ("Too much!") and" Yoroshil" 
("It is well!" practically, "I will take it!"); ges- 
tures, smiles, and frowns helping us greatly when my 
brother was not at hand with his fluent Japanese. 
Everything of native design was very artistic, but a 
copy from a foreign model, such as an ordinary table 
with, long legs, would fail through being badly pro- 
portioned. The beautiful inlaid work is rapidly done, 

* The height of Mount Fuji is 12,365 feet — a total that is 
easily retained by the memory from its accordance with the 
months and days of the year. 



120 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

and some specimens we chose in Miyanoshita came to 
England in perfect safety by the long sea-route. As 
we went down the street we were much amused by the 
following English inscription outside one of the houses : 
" This house to let having fine location, from which 
Fuji San on the up, and Enoshima on the down, can 
be viewed when weather most splendidly." 

But my brother would not allow us more than an 
hour's shopping, and at 10 a.m. we started in Canton 
chairs for a trip to Hakone, five miles over the 
mountains. After leaving the village, and passing 
through some fields of millet, we gradually climbed the 
steep ascent of Mount Ashinoyu, a high mountain 
which lay between us and Hakone. We passed an 
immense figure of the god Jizo cut in the rock at 
the wayside. Our chair coolies showed no signs 
of reverence for this image ; in fact, all through our 
journeys in Japan we were a good deal struck by the 
complete indifference of such men to wayside shrines 
or temples. 

As we descended towards Hakone the beautiful 
lake came in sight, and we ought to have had a fine 
view of Mount Fuji beyond it ; but in spite of lovely 
weather the mountain, except its extreme summit, 
was veiled in clouds. The nearer views of the lake 
and woods were, however, well worth the journey 
from Miyanoshita ; and after luncheon in a Japanese 
inn we returned by the same route, passing through 



MIYANOSHITA AND NAGOYA. 121 

a long avenue of cryptomeria which reminded us of 
the road to Nikko. 

We never wearied of these cryptomeria, or giant 
firs, and found them in every part of Japan. There 
is a pretty story told about those which lead up to 
the temples at Nikko, built in memory of Iyeyasu, 
Japan's greatest Shogun. It is said they were the 
offering of one daimyo, who, being too poor to 
present a splendid gift such as his fellow-daimyos 
were dedicating to the new temples, planted in- 
stead the two long avenues of trees, which [sue now, 
nearly two hundred years later, the most striking 
and unique offering of all. 

Oct. 16. — The following morning we had a de- 
lightful expedition to a mountain gorge quite near 
Miyanoshita, called Ojigoku (or Big Hell). Its name 
is derived from some very remarkable hot sulphur 
springs, the steam of which rises through nume- 
rous cracks in the soil. All the ground near them, 
except the actual path, is very treacherous, and 
we were told that from time to time the lives of 
visitors had been lost there. The whole gorge was 
destitute of vegetation ; but after climbing over the 
rough blocks of sulphur to the summit, we were 
rewarded by a wonderful view of the wooded valley 
and lake of Hakone, Mount Fuji rising in unclouded 
beauty above all, and the scene being a remarkable 
contrast to the desolate gorge behind us. 



122 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

We returned to Miyanoshita by 1.30, and in the 
afternoon my father and I climbed a neighbouring 
hill (a thousand feet high) to watch the sunset over 
Mount Fuji. The view was one of the loveliest we 
had in Japan, though in that land of mountains and 
woods the scenery scarcely ever lacks beauty, in one 
form or another. Below us lay the pretty mountain 
village, and on our right the fertile plain of Yumoto 
and Odowara, with the gleaming line of the Pacific in 
the extreme distance. On our left rose the long 
range of mountain peaks, Mount Fuji looking like a 
queen in their midst, her crown of snow bathed in the 
deep crimson of the sunset sky. We were standing near 
the summit of the hill when we noticed a little Japan- 
ese woman, who had patiently followed us up the zig- 
zag path from Miyanoshita, hoping to sell us some soda- 
water from the neighbouring wooden house of which 
she was the owner. She opened the house, and spread 
out her wares ; but as we were returning to tea in the 
hotel, we did not require them. However, to com- 
pensate her for her trouble, my father gave her a small 
coin, and in her fervent gratitude that little woman 
trotted immediately before us all the way down again, 
kicking every big stone out of our path — a very 
kind attention to us, but a more doubtful one to the 
owner of the property. 

Oct. 17. — We left Miyanoshita the next morning 
at 5.50 a.m. in perfect weather, retracing our steps 



MIYANOSIIITA AND NAGOYA. 125 

down the mountain pass to Yumoto, where we took 
the tramcar to Kozu, and went by train to Nagoya, 
a journey of some 200 miles. For three hours the 
line skirted Mount Fuji ; and being one of the most 
beautiful in Japan, we had constant glimpses of 
woodland, and waterfalls, and of the il royal moun- 
tain," as my father called it, from every point of 
view. 

It was also a real interest to watch our Japanese 
fellow-travellers. They seemed most comfortable in 
a railway carriage ; and a lady, who evidently found 
the effort to balance herself on the high foreign seat 
rather tiring, soon solved the difficulty by tucking up 
her feet, and sitting on her heels as usual, though of 
course at a greater elevation. We heard some quaint 
stories while in Japan of the first beginning of rail- 
Avays. For instance, one man waited all day at the 
station hoping the fares would diminish by the 
evening ; and numbers of passengers, by mere force 
of custom, took off their wooden clogs before entering 
the train, as if it had been a house, but were greatly 
discomfited to find themselves shoeless at the other 
end, having expected the clogs would somehow or 
other follow their owners ! 

Soon after noon we left Mount Fuji, passing through 
a carefully-cultivated plain, which was skirted by the 
sea on the left, and the hills on the right. The rice 
harvest was going on, and the fields often reminded 



126 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

us of wheat-fields at home, though of course in many 
ways they were very different. The sheaves were 
much smaller, and being slung by their stalks on 
long bamboo poles, looked upside down, according 
to English ideas. When properly dried, the rough 
wooden rice-rake is passed through them, and the 
grain falls into straw mats below, the straw being 
used for putting under matted floors, etc. Many of 
the fields had been prepared for the ensuing season — 
that is, they had been flooded with water in which 
the grain had been sown ; and when the young plants 
had grown to some height, they would be plucked 
up and transplanted at wider intervals. 

At Hamamatsu we passed over one end of a lagoon, 
formerly a lake, but an earthquake in 1499 had 
broken down the neck of land between it and the sea. 
It was thronged with fishing-boats, and with junks 
whose great brown sails were stiffened with bamboo 
rods rather after the fashion of a modern crinoline. 

The daylight gradually faded, and it was quite 
dark when, at 6 p.m., we arrived at Nagoya, a city of 
162,000 people, where we received a warm welcome 
from Mr. and Mrs. Cooper Eobinson, a missionary of 
the Canadian Church, and his wife, who had invited 
us to be their guests while in the city. Nagoya 
was formerly the residence of the powerful Princes 
of Owari, whose castle, now in the hands of the 
Government, is in perfect preservation, and reckoned 



MIYANOSHITA AND NAGOYA. 127 

to be the finest in Japan. Mr. and Mrs. Robinson 
lived in a pretty Japanese house, at one time occupied 
by a Japanese officer, but now furnished in English 
fashion, and, except for its paper walls, most homelike 
in appearance. 

Oct. 18 (Sunday). — We certainly had a most inter- 
esting Sunday. Nagoya is but little affected as yet 
by Western thought, and being at the same time a 
stronghold of Buddhism, it is one of the few places in 
which missionaries have been actively opposed. Our 
missions had only been established three years, and 
we were told that at first the people threatened to 
burn down the preaching-house and stone the mission- 
aries. But the work was quietly pursued, and it 
was only when all opposition had died away that Mr. 
Robinson found the authorities had thought it neces- 
sary to provide a guard of fifteen or twenty policemen 
to keep off an assault on him and his colleagues. 

At 9.30 that morning we went down to the 
preaching-station. It was an ordinary house with 
the screens removed, so as to form one large room, 
and with its Holy Table, prayer-desk, and harmonium, 
looked a good deal like a mission chapel in England. 
About seventeen Japanese were present, and the ser- 
vice began with the confirmation of three candidates, 
an old man of sixty, and two young women. My 
brother gave an extempore address in Japanese, and 
we could not help thinking what a real missionary 



128 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

Bishop he looked, as he stood in that plain little room, 
and spoke so earnestly to the newly-made converts. 
Two hymns were sung, one being, " Jesus, I have 
promised " ; and, after the Confirmation, the Holy 
Communion was celebrated, ten Japanese and five 
English communicating. It was quite possible for us 
to follow with our English prayer-books, though any 
extra collect made rather a difficulty ; but even then 
some foreign word like " Sacramento " or " Episcopo " 
would soon be used, and guide us back to the right 
place. Instead of feeling the two languages a bar- 
rier, they seemed to make the unity of the Church a 
greater reality. 

In the afternoon we had English Evensong in 
Mr. Eobinson's drawing-room. All the American 
Nonconformist missionaries in Nagoya and some 
English travellers attended ; and my father preached 
a sermon on Romans viii. 32. In the evening he 
gave an address to non-Christians at the preaching- 
house, and says in his diary : '■ I went down again 
with Mr. Robinson to the preaching-house, where they 
sang hymns, and two Christian Japanese laymen (one 
a tutor and one a catechist) spoke to them, and I 
addressed them, the catechist interpreting, for fifteen 
or twenty minutes. They were most attentive, and 
the Buddhist, who had been the most violent opponent 
some months ago, was there a patient listener. The 
old man, who had been confirmed in the morning, 




fd^:dlcck^r^^=^~ 




/■ 



K 



MIYANOSHITA AND NAGOYA. 131 

when Mr. Kobinson asked him what he meant to do 
with the idol he had in his hand, and its costly 
lacquered and gilded box, said he thought he should 
sell it, as it was worth some thirty dollars (£5). Mr. 
Kobinson asked what we should advise. It was a 
difficult question, as thirty dollars was a great sum to 
the poor old man ; but the question was delightfully 
solved, in the evening, by the old man coming up to 
Mr. Eobinson and saying he would give him the idol. 

" Mr. Robinson gets hold of many persons at the 
door (of the preaching-house), takes their shoes and 
places them on the shelf, and thus often secures 
auditors. He goes now to two villages — one of nearly 
10,000 and another of 5,000 people — where they have 
scarcely ever seen an European, and preaches in the 
village theatre. There was a strong feeling against 
the missionaries at first ; but it has passed away now, 
and there is a great door and effectual open." 

Oct. 19. — We spent most of the morning at the 
Castle. It is still the headquarters of the garrison, 
but only the outer enceinte is occupied by them, the 
citadel and Palace being kept as national monuments. 
Both here and at Osaka enormous blocks of stone are 
used in the walls, and at first sight it is a genuine 
puzzle to know how such stones could have been 
conveyed to the spot. 

Crossing over the moat and through the great gate- 
way we went first of all to the Palace. The rooms are 

K 2 



132 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

now destitute of matting and furniture, but the slid- 
ing screens between are covered with paintings by 
some of the first artists in Japan, and the open-work 
frieze, used for ventilation, is carved in birds and 
flowers as delicate as those at Nikko. We noticed 
a curious creaking of the boards as we passed over 
them, just like a gentle twittering of birds, which 
Mr. Kobinson explained was produced by some 
special arrangement of the nails holding them to- 
gether, and was intended to warn the inmates of the 
approach of thieves. He also called our attention to 
the very simple apartments of the earlier princes, as 
compared with the highly-decorated ones of their 
successors. 

AVe passed quietly from room to room, and, as we 
studied their pictured walls, it was no difficult task to 
let the glamour of the old days steal over us. The 
soft air of the princely court yet lingered about 
them ; the scenes of religious or court festival were 
vividly represented on their screens and corridors. 
We could almost hear the quiet footsteps of the 
warriors and courtiers as they passed over the softly- 
matted floors, and could enter into the deadly in- 
trigues and bitter warfare that took their rise in this 
palace of old days. Vengeance and bloodshed, art 
and courtesy — all had left their mark, and the energy 
for o;ood and evil to which its walls bore witness 
seemed a pledge that Japan of to-day will not be 



MIYANOSHITA AND NAGOYA. 135 

daunted in her efforts at self-endowment with all that 
the nineteenth century has placed at the disposal of 
other nations, always supposing she submits herself to 
the Faith which is the mainspring of all true progress. 

The Castle (including both palace and keep) was 
built in 1610 a.d. by twenty feudal lords as a 
residence for the Princes of Owari, who were closely 
allied with the Shoguns at Tokyo. The keep was the 
work of a celebrated General named Kato Kyomasa, 
whose home we afterwards visited at Kumamoto. It 
is five storeys high, the lowest one being made of 
huge stones, the others of wood covered with stucco. 
The roofs, five in number, are covered with copper, and 
on the uppermost there are two dolphins, made of 
gold and enclosed in wire netting. They are valued 
at 180,000 dollars,* and one was sent to the Vienna 
Exhibition in 1873. It was unfortunately wrecked 
on the return voyage in a Messageries Maritimes 
steamer, but was rescued with difficulty, and restored 
to its place in the keep, to the great satisfaction of 
the Japanese. We climbed to the highest storey, and 
were rewarded by a fine view of the great plain of 
Nagoya and the amphitheatre of distant hills. 

AVe spent the afternoon in a visit to some cloisonne- 
enamel, china, and paper-lantern shops. The entrance 
of the first looked by no means promising, being a 
good deal like a stable door in a London back street, 
* Roughly about £30,000. 



136 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

but it admitted us into a fairyland of art and beauty. 
We spent a long time in the various work-shops, 
watching the cloisonne in each stage. The articles 
to be decorated, whether plaque, vase, or incense-jar, 
were made in many different materials — bronze, china, 
pottery, etc. The pattern was then drawn on them 
in tiny pin-holes and lines, into which gold or silver 
wire was introduced, the wire rising a little above the 
general surface, and all interstices being filled in with 
oil painting. The whole was then covered with thick 
clay and " fired," after which it had to go through a 
lengthy process of rubbing in order to remove the 
clay. Fine specimens would require a year or more 
of this rubbing, but the result was beautiful. Beneath 
the highly-polished surface appeared the sketch of 
birds and flowers, most true to nature, and with every 
vein in the leaf, or feather in a bird's wing, delicately 
marked by the wire. 

Some of the men were painting from nature, and 
each one seemed an artist. Others were not working 
at cloisonne, but were covering china tea-pots and 
vases with pale pink and blue dust. Designs of birds, 
grasses, and flowers, would be afterwards added, and 
their work also would be " fired." The different 
specimens of both china and cloisonne that we bought 
have been greatly admired. Our purchases were 
not at all extensive, but the owner was so pleased 
that he asked us each to choose a present from his 



M1YAN0SEITA AND NAGOYA. 137 

show-room, and afterwards sent Mrs. Kobinson three 
tea-pots and two vases. 

After leaving the factory we went to a china-shop, 
and saw many fine specimens of Seto mono and Kaga 
ware, visiting also a Chinese lantern-maker, where 
paper lanterns could be bought painted in beautiful 
designs. There is evidently no falling off in the 
artistic power of the people. The only danger is lest 
now, when they take orders from the owner of a 
factory, who is bound to supply the foreign market, 
they should execute these orders with modern rapidity 
and carelessness. In the old days each workman was 
in the employ of his feudal lord, and recognised 
as an artist. His daily wants were provided for, so 
that he was free to work out each design in full per- 
fection, very seldom repeating it, and generally content 
to be entirely unknown to the outside world. 

In the evening Mr. and Mrs. Eobinson held a 
reception in their drawing-room for the Christians. 
Seventeen accepted the invitation, including both 
men and women and several boys. They represented 
several ranks of society, from a leading lawyer to a 
blind basket-maker ; and though class-distinctions are 
carefully observed in Japan, their natural courtesy 
enabled them to meet without any of the awkward- 
ness that might have attended such a party in other 
countries. Despite the difficulty of language, we soon 
made friends with them, and had a very pleasant 



138 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

evening. My father talked to each guest in turn, with 
my brother as his interpreter, while Mrs. Bickersteth 
gathered the boys round her and taught them how 
to make paper boxes ; and I showed my case of 
home photographs. Among these were some of 
the interior and exterior of our Cathedral at Exeter, 
which seemed to fascinate them all. They eagerly 
showed each other how the nave was connected with 
the choir, and were much moved by the beauty of 
the building. The photograph next in popularity 
was one of my brother, the Vicar of Lewisham, and 
his wife and five little sons, which evidently appealed 
to their strong love of home-life. 

One of these Nagoya boys interested us greatly. 
He was the son of a gentleman, and, though still a 
catechumen, was to be baptized in a few days. 

He had a quantity of curly black hair — an un- 
common possession in Japan — and a bright, earnest 
face. Mr. Eobinson having given him a book of en- 
gravings to look at, with illustrations of the Bible, 
he sat down at once, and took careful notes of each 
picture in a pocket-book, looking out the story in his 
New Testament, which he had brought with him. 
He had been much persecuted by his mother, but had 
kept very firm, and told Mr. Robinson he wanted to 
be like S. Paul, and learn a trade to support himself, 
and spend all his spare time in spreading Christianity. 

His great friend, the son of a colonel in Nagoya, 



MIYANOSHITA AND NAGOYA. 139 

sat next him, and they were to be baptized together. 
At 9 o'clock trays of tea and little coloured cakes 
were brought in, and the evening closed with short 
Japanese prayers, and an address from my brother. 
The entire simplicity and earnestness of that little 
band of converts from the great heathen city of 
Nagoya made a deep impression on us, and we much 
hoped that their desire for a Mission Church, towards 
which my father gave the first subscription, would 
soon be fulfilled. 

Oct. 20. — We left Nagoya at 9 a.m. on the following 
morning, en route to Kyoto, the ancient capital of Japan, 
and our host and several of the Christians kindly came 
to the station to see us off. We had a few minutes 
to wait before the train came in, and found that, as 
usual, we were objects of great curiosity in the waiting- 
room and on the platform. A crowd of perhaps fifty 
persons gathered round us, and when we bowed and 
smiled, they would gently stroke our dress, as great a 
curiosity to them as theirs was to us. One of them, 
a young man, who was walking up and down the 
platform, greatly amused us. He was in full English 
costume, and might have passed for an Oxford or 
Cambridge undergraduate, had not his hands been 
neatly encased in white cotton gloves. But gloves 
and hats are still a novelty in many parts of Japan, 
and it is scarcely a wonder that they do not find a 
suitable home at once. 



140 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

Our journey took us past Gifu, where Mr. and Mrs. 
Chappell, the C.M.S. missionary and his wife, came to 
greet us at the station. We little guessed that Gifu, 
Ogaki. and many other places which so delighted us 
that day, with their peaceful beauty and quaint feudal 
castles, would only eight days later he a scene of utter 
desolation from the great earthquake. 

After leaving the plain of Nagoya, we passed 
through some fine mountain scenery, the line run- 
ning close to the shores of Lake Biwa. We were 
interested to see Otsu, where the Czarevitch had been 
attacked the previous spring, and the time passed 
all too quickly before the train arrived at Kyoto. 



( 141 ) 



CHAPTER VII. 

KYOTO. 

Kyoto, the ancient capital of the Mikados, is now far 
behind Tokyo in size and population, though in 
picturesqueness and historical interest it greatly out- 
does its modern rival ; and from the moment we left 
the railway station we could see how little the streets 
had been touched by the new life of Japan. Religious 
fairs were going on in many parts of the city, and 
these, and the numerous priests among the crowds of 
passers-by, proved how powerful was the influence 
that the old religion and social customs still exercise 
upon the people. 

Our hotel — Yaamis — was built half-way up one of 
the hills which surround the city. From its win- 
dows and garden the view was remarkably striking, 
and from the summit of the hill above, to which we 
climbed soon after our arrival, it was even finer, as 
each temple and public building in the great city 
stood out clearly from the surrounding sea of houses, 
and all were bathed in the glow of an autumn sunset. 
We descended the hill rather quickly, as daylight 



142 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

was nearly gone, and, missing our way, found our- 
selves in a large cemetery. It was carefully kept, 
but there was an intense dreariness in its long lines 
of dark granite headstones, some carved into rough 
representations of the four elements, and others in 
the shape of a lotus-flower, the Buddhist emblem of 
immortality. We were trying various paths in order 
to reach the main road, when we came quite suddenly 
on a grave surmounted by a Latin cross. The cross 
was covered with gold, and stood on a block of stone 
placed just below the fringe of dark fir-trees that 
edged the cemetery. As it caught the glow of the 
sunset light it seemed a beautiful emblem of the 
victory that Christianity was beginning to win over 
heathenism even in the dark city below us. 

Oct. 21. — The following morning we went out early, 
accompanied by the Eev. C. Ambler, an American 
missionary of the Church in Japan. Our first halt 
was at a large new temple which is being built by 
private subscriptions in order to replace one destroyed 
by fire a few years ago. Since our return to England 
we have heard this temple quoted as a proof of the 
renewed vigour of Japanese Buddhism ; but in reality 
it is a most powerful witness to its decay. In many 
cases the appeals on its behalf were indignantly re- 
sented. Subscriptions came in very slowly, and 
were nearly all sent by only two out of the eighty- 
four provinces of the Empire which had remained 



KYOTO. 145 

faithful to the old creeds. The effort could scarcely, 
therefore, be described either as a national one, or a 
proof of the renewed vigour of Buddhism in Japan. 

From the new temple we went to one of the most 
ancient, the Nishi Hongwanji, or headquarters of 
the Hongwanji sect of the Buddhists. Its propor- 
tions were finer than any of those which we had 
yet seen, and in the magnificence of its bronze 
and gold lacquer -work it reminded us of Nikko, and 
the Shiba temples at Tokyo. We spent some time 
inside it, and on coming out into the courtyard again 
we noticed a very large fir-tree, each branch of which 
was supported by wooden crutches. " Murray " said 
this tree was supposed to protect the temple from 
fire "by discharging showers of water whenever a 
conflagration in the neighbourhood threatens danger." 
We then visited the Amidado, a smaller temple in 
the same courtyard, but were not allowed to enter 
the beautiful State apartments adjoining it — used 
by the Eoyal family — as the Empress-Dowager was 
in Kyoto, and they expected her at the temple 
that morning. We therefore decided to visit the 
Imperial Gardens before luncheon. They are two and 
a half miles out of the city, and mark how it has 
shrunk from its ancient limits. We were very for- 
tunate to see them, as they are generally closed to 
visitors ; but a Japanese friend in Tokyo had kindly 
procured a special order for us. When we presented 



146 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

this order at the entrance, the lodge-keeper put it 
on the ground, and prostrated himself so often before 
it that it seemed a little doubtful if he would ever 
be ready to show us the way. In many respects 
the gardens reminded us of those we had seen at 
Tokyo, but in others they were much more beautiful. 
The trees, instead of being dwarfed, were, as a rule, 
allowed to grow to their full height; the actual 
grounds were more extensive, and there was no 
uncomfortable sense of closely-clipped accuracy such 
as we had felt at Tokyo. 

The polite attendant showed us over the various 
summer-houses which were scattered about the gar- 
dens. One was intended for the Tea Ceremonies, 
and others for dwelling-houses, but all were abso- 
lutely simple in design and decoration, the idea of 
surrounding the Mikado, the " Son of Heaven," with 
earthly magnificence being quite a modern one. 

In the afternoon we went to the the Imperial 
Palace and Nijo Castle, which are both within the 
limits of the city itself; but again the Empress- 
Dowager's presence in Kyoto made any entrance to 
them impossible. The Imperial Palace is a modern one, 
built in 1856, after the destruction of its predecessor 
by fire, but the Nijo Castle was erected in 1691 by 
the Shoguns, or military rulers. It was a great 
pity we were obliged to miss seeing its beautiful 
rooms, in one of which the present Mikado met his 



KY010. 147 

Council of State in 1868, and swore to grant a de- 
liberative assembly to the nation. We paused next 
for a few minutes outside the Doshisha, or Christian 
University, founded in 1875 by the American Non- 
conformists. It is a handsome group of buildings, 
and in spite of the recent anti-foreign reaction, still 
numbers 700 students. It includes a Theological 
Department, Girls' School, Science School, Hospital, 
and Training School for Nurses. We wished indeed 
that such a powerful missionary weapon was in the 
hands of our Church ; but our mission station in 
Kyoto is of very recent date, and at present has 
only one missionary, and a small native congrega- 
tion. 

On our way back to the hotel we visited a silk 
and crepe factory. Its employes were all seated on 
the floor before low frames containing their work, 
which looked more like delicate painting than silk 
embroidery. Yet we were told that this modern 
embroidery falls far below the standard of old days, 
and we could see it for ourselves from some fragments 
of old festival dresses that we picked up at another 
shop. The owner begged us to buy them, saying it 
would be impossible to reproduce them now, and would 
cost five times as much as in the old days even to 
make the attempt. 

Oct. 22. — The following morning we made a de- 
lightful expedition to the rapids of the Katsuragawa. 

L 2 



148 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

It was a lovely autumn day — just what we needed for 
our expedition ; and after breakfast at 7.30, we started 
in four jinrikshas for our ride of about fifteen miles 
over the great plain of Kyoto and up the surrounding 
hills to the little village of Hodsugawa, where the 
Bishop said he could engage a boat to take us down 
the famous rapids. We passed many delightful 
groups of country folk ; peasants bringing in sup- 
plies for the city markets in carts drawn by straw-san- 
dalled oxen ; closely-shaven priests, and pilgrims with 
quaint hats like reversed waste-paper baskets ; fat 
babies left alone in padded hampers to survey passing 
travellers, but never an idle man or woman. The 
colouring was most beautiful, and we never wearied 
of admiring the lovely woods of dark cryptomeria 
relieved by graceful bamboos or scarlet maples, and 
the neat little gardens, from which our jinriksha 
men did not scruple to pick any flower they thought 
we should appreciate. Arrived at last at Hod- 
sugawa, we found a long canoe which easily took 
in three of our jinrikshas, our four selves, and several 
boatmen. To suit the convenience of the foreigners, 
one very high seat, in the shape of a narrow 
plank, had been fitted across the boat, and, perched 
side by side on this, we were able to enjoy all the fun 
and beauty of our trip down the river. True, it 
needed some care to maintain our equilibrium, for the 
sun compelled us to hold up parasols, and the time 



KYOTO. 149 

of day compelled us to take our luncheon, packed with 
characteristic Japanese neatness in four white wooden 
boxes, worthy to contain delicate Swiss carving. 
But, fortunately for us, the rapids were not continu- 
ous, and we were sufficiently comfortable to enjoy 
every exciting moment. 

I only wish words could fully describe the ex- 
periences of the next hour and half. Now a quiet 
reach of water, when the men worked steadily with 
two clumsy oars on one side of the boat only ; then 
in a moment we were rushing down a rapid, just 
shaving a jagged brown rock, and sprayed by the 
water as it foamed past us, until we found it difficult 
to believe that the thin pliant planks beneath our 
feet, which swayed like the breast of the sleeping 
lady in Madame Tussaud's, could preserve us from 
a plunge in the chilly waters of the Katsuragawa ! 
The pleasant rush and excitement lasted but a few 
seconds, and again we were in a quiet pool, looking 
up to the wooded hills that towered above us, and at 
another boat whose men were slowly tugging it up 
the river, jumping and slipping from rock to rock on 
the banks. Yet with never a pause sufficient to cause 
weariness, for — rush and swirl — we are in again. We 
graze a rock ! Is there a hole in our boat ? No ; 
we are safely through ; and one of our oarsmen is 
pulling the cork of a bottle destined for our luncheon, 
though in ten seconds or less he will be due at his 



150 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

post in another rapid ! The real tug of war came on 
the steersman, who stood erect and graceful at the 
prow, with only a long bamboo to use as a rudder, 
but with as complete a control of the boat as if he 
had the latest improvement in steering by electricity 
at his disposal, — landing us an hour and a half later 
at Arashiyama, with the pleasantest recollections of 
the Eapids of the Katsuragawa. 

Oct. 23. — We were up again early, and started in 
jinrikshas by 8.30 for Lake Biwa, and the town of 
Otsu, where the Czarevitch was attacked last spring. 
We had again a very interesting ride along the high 
road for some seven miles — passing every class of 
peasant, and seeing every feature of their life. Jin- 
riksha riding is rather unsociable work, as the men 
insist on following each other in as strict procession 
as the Noah's Ark animals of one's childhood, and it 
is therefore very difficult to carry on a conversation. 
But they are most courteous in their care of their 
customers, always ready to tuck you up in their 
scarlet rugs, or to describe the scenery in the most 
fluent of Japanese, and only laughing merrily when 
you cannot understand a word of what they have 
said. Every few miles they stop at a tea-house for 
a tiny cup of tea, or water, or crushed ice, and a 
smoke. Their heaviest meal is not taken until they 
reach their destination, and consists of rice with a little 
curry, or a chestnut or two — beside which an English 



KYOTO. 151 

dinner would look truly formidable. If any member 
of the party walks for a while, the men in charge 
of the vacant jinriksha invariably run to the help of 
their neighbours instead of taking a rest themselves, 
and all through the longest journey they will chatter 
and laugh — even up a hilly road that would ruin the 
lungs of an Englishman. 

Otsu has a population of 30,000, and is built on 
the shore of Lake Biwa. We left our jinrikshas near 
a long flight of steps leading up to some Shinto 
temples, from which we had a fine view of the lake 
and of Otsu itself. The lake was beautifully blue, 
and surrounded by mountains, and we noticed any 
number of little fishing-boats, with their square white 
or brown sails, on its waters. From the temples we 
went on for a mile and a half to see a remarkable 
pine tree, of untold age and great sanctity ! It was 
well worth a visit as a curiosity, though too stiffly 
trained to be beautiful. The widespreading branches 
were supported on numerous wooden crutches resting 
on stone cushions, and there was a little wooden roof 
over the top. The dimensions were as follows : — 
Height, 90 feet ; circumference of trunk, over 37 feet ; 
length of branches — from east to west, 240 feet ; 
from north to south, 288 feet; number of branches 
over 380 — the age being apparently quite unknown. 
We went on to Sakamoto, a lovely spot in the hills, 
and famous for its temples, which are approached by 



152 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

a long avenue of cryptomeria, and hundreds of the 
torii, or curious Japanese arches of stone, bronze, or 
lacquered wood, that mark the neighbourhood of any 
sacred place. We lunched on one of the three fine 
stone bridges that span the mountain stream near 
the temples, and returned to Kyoto in time to pay 
a visit to one of its most famous temples and 
monasteries, Chion-in, the principal monastery of the 
Jodo sect of the Buddhists. 

As we entered the temple we noticed a great crowd 
of Japanese seated before the rail which shut off the 
central shrine, and saying their prayers in a loud mono- 
tone " Namu Amida Butsu 11 — ("We worship thee, 
great Buddha "). The same words were repeated by 
all, and this for hundreds of times, with an accom- 
paniment of wooden clappers, struck with most un- 
pleasant effect by some priests and women in the 
crowd. But a few minutes later all was changed at 
the entrance of two priests, dressed, one in gold and 
vivid green, and the other in gold and brown. The 
senior priest said a few prayers before the altar, and 
then advanced to a high red lacquer pulpit chair 
placed within the rail. He seated himself with great 
dignity, and having arranged his robes, pulled down 
a scarlet and gold ante-pendium before the pulpit 
desk, and struck one blow on a clapper with truly 
instantaneous effect. Every " Amida Butsu " was cut 
short at the sound, and amid dead silence he read a 



KYOTO. 153 

few sentences from a manuscript, followed by a prayer, 
in which all joined. He then began to preach — 
according to the Bishop in very perfect Japanese — 
urging upon his hearers the virtues of the wholesome 
medicine of Buddhism. But we had yet to visit an 
Imperial Palace in the grounds of the monastery, and 
we only stayed for a few minutes of his discourse, 
though the scene, with its strange mingling of beauty 
of colour, and sad dreariness and emptiness of 
worship, was indelibly stamped on our minds. 

Oct. 24. — We spent the next morning in some visits 
to a few of the most famous temples in Kyoto. One 
of the largest, called Kyomizudera, is built on the hill 
near Yaami's Hotel, and from its wooden platform, 
used for sacred dances, we had another fine view of 
the city, and could even see the smoke of Osaka, 
some forty miles away, in the extreme distance. In 
an adjoining hall we saw some curious ex-voto tablets, 
thickly stuck with lumps of paper. These lumps, my 
brother told us, were charms, which, after being 
moistened in the mouth, were aimed at the tablet, 
and (in the opinion of the Japanese) were efficacious 
if they stuck. We next visited a huge image of 
Buddha, erected in a large wooden building in another 
part of the city. The present image was made in 
1801, but it was the successor of several others, the 
earliest of which dated from 1588. It only repre- 
sented the head and shoulders of Buddha, but the 



154 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

dimensions were as follows : Height, 58 feet ; face, 
30 feet by 21 feet ; eyebrow, 8 feet ; eye, 5 feet ; 
nose, 9 feet ; mouth, 8 feet 7 inches ; ear, 1 2 feet, 
and breadth of the shoulders, 43 feet. It was made 
of wood, and the head covered with gilt, but a less 
prepossessing expression could scarcely be imagined. 

Before returning home we went to San-ju- gen-do, 
or the Temple of the 33,333 Images of Kwannon, the 
Goddess of Mercy. It was a large building, and the 
hall was not divided into several shrines, but entirely 
devoted to Kwannon. In the centre stood a fine 
image of the goddess surrounded by twenty-eight of 
her followers, and ranged on either side was a gilded 
phalanx, about four deep, of other images of her. 
They numbered 1000 in all, or 33,333 if all the tiny 
gods held in their numerous sets of arms, or affixed 
to their halos, are included in the grand total. It 
was a most remarkable sight, and yet a very pathetic 
one. The face of Kwannon is always made with an 
expression of pity, and thus seems to bear witness 
to the intense, but, alas unsatisfied longings of 
heathenism after a Divine sympathy. 



( 157 ) 



CHAPTER VIII. 

OSAKA. 

We returned to Yaami's Hotel, and left Kyoto soon 
after luncheon for Osaka, where my father was to in- 
spect the work of the central C.M.S. Mission. Arch- 
deacon "Warren, the senior missionary, had sent him 
the following letter of welcome soon after our arrival 
in Japan, and my father had gladly consented to its 
proposal that he should lay the foundation-stone of 
the new mission Church at Fukuyama, an old feudal 
city some hundred and forty miles from Osaka. 

" On behalf of the members of the C.M.S. Mission 
I beg to offer your Lordship a hearty welcome to 
Japan, and to assure you of the deep interest we feel 
in your visit. Your warm attachment to our beloved 
Society, and the many and great services you have 
rendered it, assure us that your visit, though of a 
private character, will greatly help us in our work. 
We shall be greatly encouraged by your Lordship's 
presence and counsel in the several districts it may 
be possible for you to visit, and we confidently antici- 
pate that when you return to England your reports 



158 JAPAN AS WE SAW II. 

of the progress and development of the work will be 
a means of deepening the interest felt in it by the 
Church at home. 

" I have expressed to our beloved Bishop my 
desire that if possible your Lordship should visit 
Fukuyama when you are in this neighbourhood ; and 
if this can be arranged, I hope you will consent to 
lay the foundation-stone of the little Church to be 
erected there. 

" Praying that your Lordship and Mrs. and Miss 
Bickersteth may be refreshed by your visit, 
" Believe me, 

" Yours very faithfully, 

" Charles F. Warren, 

" Sec. C. M.S.— Japan Mission." 

Osaka is a large city (476,000 inhabitants) on the 
sea -coast, and only an hour and a half's railway jour- 
ney from Kyoto. It is the Liverpool of Japan — more 
useful, therefore, than ornamental in appearance ; but 
its long rows of merchants' offices and shops are 
redeemed from monotony by the numerous canals, 
crossed by a number of fine bridges, which intersect 
every part of the city. 

We had a pleasant journey from Kyoto, and were 
met at Osaka station by the clergy and Mission 
ladies. A large number of Japanese were also 
present, who bowed such a graceful welcome that we 



OSAKA. 159 

were really thankful when our English friends carried 
off our bags, &c, and we could bow in return, from 
the time we left the train until we were safely settled 
in our jinrikshas. 

My father and brother and Mrs. Bickersteth were 

the o'uests of Archdeacon and Miss Warren during 

© © 

our visit to Osaka, and I stayed with Miss K. Tristram, 
daughter of Canon Tristram of Durham, and Lady 
Principal of the Bishop Poole Memorial Girls' School. 
Most of the missionaries' houses, and also the 
Divinity School, Girls' School, and Home for Training 
Native Mission Women, are built on the Concession, 
the only piece of land in the Treaty Ports that the 
Japanese would let to foreigners when their country 
was first opened to the outer world. It was very 
pleasant to be welcomed by so many English friends, 
and very interesting to gather some idea of their 
work during our week among them. 

Oct. 25. — Sunday was, as usual, a fine day ; in fact, 
we only had three rainy days during nearly eight 
weeks in Japan. At 9.30 we went to the Japanese 
Celebration of Holy Communion in Holy Trinity 
Church, a plain but roomy building within a walk of 
the Mission houses. There were eighty-four Com- 
municants at the service, and of this number seventy- 
three were Japanese, the larger proportion being men. 

In the afternoon my father preached, by interpre- 
tation, at the second Mission Church, the Church of the 



160 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

Saviour. He also gave an address in English at 
the Divinity College Chapel, where we and the 
missionaries met at 5 p.m. for Evensong. A large 
number of American Nonconformists came to this 
service. 

Oct. 26. — The following morning he inspected 
the Bishop Poole Girls' school. It is a large red- 
brick building in foreign style, and has a central 
quadrangle, which makes a capital playground for the 
girls. In one corner are Miss Tristram's private 
rooms, within easy reach of the large schoolroom, 
class-rooms, and dormitories. The school, which 
numbered fifty pupils at that time, was steadily 
increasing. The girls came from various ranks of 
society, and, like those we had seen at S. Hilda's 
School, Tokyo, received a thorough Japanese educa- 
tion, and definite Christian teaching also. They met 
for prayers at 8 o'clock in the large schoolroom, and 
the Bible was taught during the first hour of school. 
It was a powerful testimony to the influence of Miss 
Tristram and her fellow teachers that nearly all their 
fifty pupils had now been baptized. 

We went through the various class-rooms, and 
watched the writing, or rather the rapid painting, in 
Indian ink, of the terribly elaborate Chinese and 
Japanese characters. In Japanese schools the same 
piece of paper is used over and over again as a copy- 
book until it is wholly black. But the pupils can 




(/i^ 






OSAKA. 161 

somehow distinguish the letters they are practising 
when freshly painted over an old copy, though a 
stranger would wholly fail in doing so. Among other 
things, they learn the arrangement of flowers, which 
is a serious study in Japan, requiring a two years' 
course of lessons before it can be mastered. A care- 
ful design is carried out in each group or spray of 
flowers, so that in a branch of cherry blossom, for 
instance, the angles of each twig seem always to occur 
in a given place. The other twigs are probably cut 
away to ensure this, the somewhat stiff attitude of 
the branch in its vase being secured by a tiny crutch 
or two placed in the stem of the vase. Each flower 
has a hidden meaning, and as much attention is 
bestowed on the effect of the shadows as on that of 
the actual specimens. The Japanese never attempt 
to mass flowers together, nor fail to include a few 
grasses, or a spray of leaves in their bouquets. My 
father gave a short address in each class-room, with 
Archdeacon Warren as his interpreter, and then a 
longer one in the large school-room to the assembled 
pupils. The girls then sang some English glees to 
us, and one of them played very well on an American 
organ. 

From the school we went to the Home for Native 
Mission Women. Ten women are now being trained 
in it, who promise to be valuable helpers in the 
future to the staff of English mission ladies. 

M 



162 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

In the afternoon we visited Osaka Castle, from the 
walls of which a very fine view of the city, and plain, 
and of the distant Inland Sea, could be obtained. 
The Castle was built in 1583 by Hideyoshi, one of 
the greatest generals Japan has ever known, and the 
same man who invented the curious Tea Ceremonies 
in order to " calm the spirits " of his subordinates 
before a council in war. 

There are a number of huge blocks of stone in 
the walls, about which the Archdeacon told us the 
following story. Hideyoshi started a competition 
among the daimyos as to who could furnish him with 
the largest block of stone, and offered a reward to the 
man who brought such a stone to Osaka. The prize 
was duly gained by one of the daimyos, and the 
general then told the others to remove their blocks. 
They refused to do so, on account of the trouble and 
cost it had required to bring them to Osaka. Hide- 
yoshi then used the prize block, and all the others, 
for the new Castle which he was building in the city 
in order to overawe the south and west provinces of 
Japan. This accounted of course for the unusual size 
of the stones ; but until lately nobody could explain 
with certainty by what means they had been brought. 
Then, a boat having grounded on a supposed rock in 
the river, the rock was examined, and proved to be 
a block of stone very similar to those now in the 
Castle walls, showing that water must have been the 



OSAKA. 163 

means of transit, and that one daimyo had been 
unfortunate enough to lose his block just as it arrived 
at its destination. 

The fine Palace and other buildings within the 
walls were destroyed by fire in 1868, and the space 
is now occupied by some modern-looking barracks, 
used as the headquarters of the military force at 
Osaka. "We returned home before sunset, and in the 
evening there was an " At Home " at the Divinity 
School, attended by all the English and American 
missionaries in the city. 

Oct. 27. — Archdeacon Warren and his daughter 
had planned a picnic in the hills for this day ; so 
at 8.20 we started for Mino, a lovely valley about 
fifteen miles from Osaka. Our party, numbering 
twenty-four persons, included all the resident mission- 
aries, and others from Kobe and Kumamoto. The 
long procession of twenty jinrikshas and two bicycles 
looked very amusing as it wound in and out among 
the rice fields of the plain of Osaka, and finally 
climbed the picturesque mountain road to the valley 
of Mino. My father notes in his diary that in a 
temple near " a midway tea-house we saw the wor- 
shippers going their weary round, holding a tassel in 
their hands with one hundred tags, and as they passed 
the idol shrine repeating some form and telling off 
one tag each round. They rang a bell by way of 
calling the attention of the idol, and then took a 

m 2 



164 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

wooden box in their hand, turned it round, and took 
out the wooden spell that first appeared at a minute 
hole. This number they named to the priest, who 
then told them their fortune. As we came back there 
was a large concourse in the temple grounds to 
witness a wrestling match, and soon afterwards we 
met a festival car, three girls beating drums and 
borne on a small platform by ten or twelve young 
men." 

It was a little early for the brilliant crimson of the 
maples, but the valley of Mino was still beautiful with 
the varied foliage of summer. We were interested 
to find that the Japanese, with their customary love 
of nature, were erecting light wooden sheds and tea- 
houses in the prettiest positions. From these in a few 
days' time, they would duly admire the autumn tints 
with the aid of tea and " one whiff," as they often call 
their smoking. Our luncheon, brought from Osaka, 
was soon spread on the ground not far from a beautiful 
waterfall, the long white cloth being prettily decorated 
with wild maidenhair and dainty Japanese dinner- 
napkins provided for each guest. The large group 
of coolies, squatted on the ground at a little distance 
from us, looked the picture of quiet comfort, and 
the trees and the waterfall made a lovely back- 
ground to the scene. After a ramble in the woods 
we left Mino at 3.30 p.m., the journey back to 
Osaka being marked by a splendid run on the part of 



OSAKA. 165 

our jinriksha men, though, as we afterwards remem- 
bered, the air was very hot and oppressive, and some 
of the party prophesied there would soon be a 
tremendous storm. 

We spent a quiet evening with our respective 
hosts, and my father afterwards wrote : "On Tuesday 
he — (Archdeacon Warren) — asked me to take their 
family prayers, and I had chosen Ps. xci. and said a 
few words on our home in God and its security and 
blessedness." He little thought when choosing that 
Psalm how appropriate its words would be to the 
events of the next twelve hours. 



160 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 



CHAPTER IX. 

THE GREAT EARTHQUAKE. 

Oct. 28 — The working day of Japan begins very 
early, and by four or five o'clock the houses are 
open and the stoves (hibachi) lighted. Breakfast is 
prepared, and the people make up for their early 
rising by a noonday siesta. Osaka was therefore 
fully awake and astir when the terrible earthquake 
of October 28th began, almost to a second, at 6.30 
a.m. Perhaps it will be well to give our personal 
experiences first, and then add those of the city and 
neighbouring country as they were gradually brought 
home to us ; for it must be remembered that we were 
instantly cut off from telegraphic communication with 
the north, and that news from the country came in 
but slowly over the shattered roads, so that several 
days passed before we could in any way estimate the 
terrible extent of the earthquake. 

Let us begin with our personal experiences. Arch- 
deacon Warren's house, in which my father, Mrs. 
Bickersteth, and my brother were staying at the time, 
is two storeys high, and built of stone and wood. 



THE GREAT EARTHQUAKE. 167 

The second storey had been added some years after 
the house was first erected, and, probably because 
foreign buildings were rather new to the Japanese at 
the time, it was not very securely put together, and 
therefore suffered more than many others from the 
shocks. In Tokyo and the neighbourhood all the 
houses are warmed by stoves, and a chimney is almost 
unknown on account of the many small shocks which 
occur in various months of every year, rendering such 
a luxury as an open fireplace and chimney most 
undesirable. But in Osaka, where earthquakes are 
very uncommon, chimneys were to be seen in all 
the foreigners' houses, Archdeacon Warren's among 
them, and the Japanese freely used them in their 
factories. Very few people living at the time could 
even remember such an event as an earthquake. 
Only a day or so after our arrival, we had inquired 
if any shocks had been recently felt in Osaka, and the 
reply was immediately given, " We never have an 
earthquake here ! " The events of the 28th were 
therefore as great an astonishment to our friends as 
to ourselves. 

My father and Mrs. Bickersteth were about to get 
up that morning when the first rumble of the earth- 
quake began. They waited for a moment before doing 
anything, as after our experience at Tokyo they 
fully expected each oscillation would be the last. 
But instead of passing away the shock gained in 



168 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

intensity every second ; and my father ran under 
the doorway, calling to Mrs. Bickersteth to follow 
him, as he knew that, narrow as it was, it would have 
afforded some slight shelter had the ceiling fallen in. 
She was just coming to him when another shock, 
worse than any before, dashed the door against his 
hand and foot, bruising them both. But Mrs. 
Bickersteth managed to cross the room, though it 
trembled, and shuddered, and swerved, in a way that 
words are wholly powerless to describe. As she did 
so the same shock which dashed the door on my 
father burst open the large windows behind her 
looking on the road, and with an awful crash threw 
down the chimney, which was built against the wall 
of their room, hurling it through the ceiling of the 
drawing-room, and wrecking that room completely. 

She and my father then remained under the door- 
way until the house was still. The worst shock 
lasted two and a half minutes, and it was scarcely 
over when my brother came up to see if they had 
been injured, saying he had never been so alarmed 
by any earthquake since he came to Japan. His 
room was on the ground floor, and he had left it and 
had run towards the front door, in order to escape 
into the garden. The chimney fell in as he passed 
the drawing-room door, and on opening it for a 
moment he saw that the room was a wreck open to 
the sky. He ran on into the garden, where Arch- 



THE GBEAT EARTHQUAKE. 



169 



deacon Warren had already taken refuge. They felt 
the earth reeling under them, a strong proof of the 
violence of the shock, as an earthquake which will 
vibrate most unpleasantly in a house will not be felt 
at all in the open air. 




ARCHDEACON' WABBEN'S DRAWIXG-ROOM, OCTOBER 28. 

The two Miss AYarrens, who slept together in a room 
opposite my father's, rushed out into the garden 
directly the earthquake began, but on the opposite 
side to that where the Archdeacon was standing 



170 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

with my brother. In the strong instinct of self- 
preservation aroused by an earthquake it is almost 
impossible to decide on the how, when, or where of an 
escape. But it was certainly a great mercy that they 
did not stay in their room, for just after they left it 
their large wardrobe fell down, pushing their bed 
before it, and had they been there it would have 
injured them severely. 

Meantime I was in Miss Tristram's house (the 
Bishop Poole's Girls' School). Some alterations 
were being made in the dining-room, drawing-room, 
and the bedrooms above them. Miss Tristram had 
therefore kindly given up her own bedroom to me, 
and was sleeping on the other side of the quadrangle. 
Miss Bolton's * room was also a long way off, so I was 
quite alone, and within reach of nobody, either 
Japanese or English, when the earthquake began. I 
shall never forget how the intense horror grew upon 
me as second by second went past, and each one 
seemed worse than the last. The first sound was like 
a heavy dray being driven under the windows. I 
was in bed reading, and the maid had just brought 
in a cup of tea. Like my father, I was not really 
alarmed at first, only thinking to myself, " Another 
earthquake," expecting it would stop, like those at 
Tokyo, before I had time to realize it had begun. 
But I found soon enough this was something 
* The assistant teacher of Bishop Poole's Girls' School. 



THE GllEAT EARTHQUAKE. 171 

entirely different. On it went, every window and 
wall creaking, swaying, rattling, until in utter terror 
I rushed from my room, thinking I would go 
downstairs into the quadrangle. But when I reached 
the staircase the very steps reeled before me, and I 
dared not go down into the narrow hall below. A sort 
of horror lest I should be crushed in it turned me 
aside to some empty rooms, through one of which I 
reached a long verandah running round the house. 
Here, to my great relief, I met one of the mis- 
sionaries (Miss Bolton), and remained with her until 
the earthquake was over. The quadrangle was< full 
of the school girls, screaming with terror ; but no 
sound reached us from the outside streets until the 
earthquake ceased ; and then a sort of prolonged wail 
seemed to go up from the city. We returned to our 
rooms, and saw many people rushing down the 
road ; and a squadron of soldiers passed who had 
evidently been sent to keep order. Miss Tristram was 
on her knees when the earthquake began ; she was 
knocked over, but sustained no injury, and as soon 
as possible came to see if I was also unhurt. We 
all dressed as quickly as we could, and long before 
we had finished Miss Warren kindly came to tell us 
that nobody at their house was injured, though the 
house itself was a wreck. 

We each one felt we had been preserved in 
imminent danger, for had the earthquake happened 



172 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

the night before, the drawing-room would have been 
occupied ; and if the chimney by my father's room had 
fallen to the right instead of to the left, he and Mrs. 
Bickersteth must inevitably have been crushed. Also, 
as regards myself, a wardrobe stood just above my 
bed, and it or the chimney might easily have fallen, 
as happened in the Warrens' house at the same 
moment. 

We soon had messages from all the other mis- 
sionaries to say they were also quite safe, though no 
less than seven chimneys had fallen in the Conces- 
sion. The family of Mr. Fyson, the Principal of 
the Divinity College, could tell of a very remarkable 
escape. Directly the earthquake began Mrs. Fyson 
told the nurse to carry the baby into the garden 
while she followed with her other children. As 
the nurse crossed the courtyard she fell over one of 
the stepping-stones, probably through a vibration of 
the earthquake, and all the others following close 
behind fell upon her ! But by the unwelcome delay 
they avoided a heavy chimney which crashed down 
in front of them, and the children escaped with a few 
bruises. If they had gone on another two yards they 
would have been crushed. 

About 8.30 a.m. I went to the Archdeacons 
house, and found young Mr. Warren already engaged 
in photographing the drawing-room, and the others 
waiting for breakfast in a little back room, as it was 



THE GREAT EARTHQUAKE. 173 

feared the dining-room chimney might collapse at 
any moment. The house looked exactly as if it had 
been bombarded. It was much older and less strongly 
built than the Girls' School, and had suffered more 
severely from the shock. The walls of the staircase 
were marked with great patches where the plaster 
had come down, and the fallen furniture, and, 
above all, the wrecked drawing-room, looked desolate 
indeed. 

But the Archdeacon and his daughters made the 
very best of everything, truly burying all regret for 
personal losses in intense thankfulness that no member 
of the Mission nor any of our party had been injured. 

News now began to .come in from the city. We 
heard first that a large bridge over the river near 
the Archdeacon's house had been badly damaged. 
It was a slightly arched wooden one, supported on 
heavy piles ; but the earth had evidently opened in 
the bed of the river beneath, for instead of being 
arched it had now partially collapsed in the centre. 
A straw rope was stretched across each end, and the 
police only allowed one or two people to go over at 
a time. Much worse news than the state of this bridge 
followed, viz. : that a large foreign-built factory 
had fallen in like a pack of cards, killing thirty of its 
employes and wounding many others. It was always 
kept open at night ; but the night staff had left and 
those on duty by day had not all arrived, or the 



174 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

loss of life would have been much more serious. 
The following account of the disaster was given in 
the leading Kobe newspaper (The Hyogo News) of 
October 29th :— 

" Arriving at Osaka we made for the Naniwa, the 
scene of the terrible disaster, which rumour, with its 
wonted exaggeration, had magnified into 300 killed. 
Fortunately it was only a tenth of that number who 
were thus suddenly hurried into eternity, but the 
catastrophe was none the less appalling. En route 
one could notice that almost every solid house had 
sustained more or less damage. Telegraph poles 
were out of the perpendicular, walls cracked, chim- 
neys serrated, and leaning at peculiar angles. One 
big smoke-stack near the Naniwa Mill was frightfully 
cracked and disjointed, but still stood, though in a 
very precarious position. 

" The road to the mill as we neared it was thronged 
with spectators coming from, or going to, the scene 
of the disaster. Some were relatives, whose cheeks 
and eyes betrayed their loss, while all spoke in awed 
tones, remarkably contrasting with Japanese wonted 
vivacity. The view from the bend in the road where 
we first caught sight of the mill was one of desolation. 
The roof had disappeared, and jagged portions of the 
walls stood tottering. The mill was a three-storeyed 
one, with a serrated roof, the span between the walls 
being 120 feet, the walls themselves being only a 



THE GREAT EABTHQUAKE. 175 

brick and a half thick. There were no iron rods 
o'oino- through the walls and riveted outside, as there 
are in buildings of a similar size in England, the 
beams resting merely on small granite supports pro- 
truding from the thin wall, instead of being built 
into the wall. Consequently, when the big shock 
came, and the walls oscillated, the huge weight of the 




INTERIOR OF MILL AT OSAKA AFTER THE EARTHQUAKE. 

machinery pulled the roof downwards, and, slipping 
out of the supports, it fell with a crash, knocking the 
northern wall outwards. 

" There were some seven hundred people at work 
in the mill at the time, but on experiencing the [first] 
shock most of them managed to escape. Others were 
iust making their exit when the crash came, and it 



176 JAPAN AS WE SAW 11. 

was on the exit side that the wall fell, burying under 
its tons of brick and plaster the numerous unfortunate 
victims. It thundered through the second and first 
floors on the northern side, carrying away almost the 
whole length for a width of about 40 feet. There, piled 
up in inextricable confusion, I were carding and spinning 
frames, nuts, screws, fragments of cotton, rafters, and 
human bodies in one indescribable mass. The cries of 
the wounded, the frantic shouting of anxious relatives, 
complemented the sickening spectacle, a spectacle 
only less mournful than that which was presented a 
little later, when relatives, pale-eyed mothers, and 
weeping children sought to recognize or identify the 
battered corpses laid out in the drying-room, their 
ghastly features, some crushed beyond recognition, 
looking more sickening in their white shrouds. And 
over all was the hush, the awe, the solemnity of 
death. 

" The surviving employes, confused for a moment by 
the fearful fate which they had so narrowly escaped, 
and which had overtaken so many of their erstwhile 
companions, immediately set about the work of rescue, 
and worked with almost superhuman energy. Their 
numbers were quickly supplemented by a detachment 
of soldiers from the garrison, where evidently the 
horror had been witnessed. All day long the work of 
clearing away the debris went on, but as late as five 
o'clock there were still four people unaccounted for. 



THE GREAT EARTHQUAKE. 177 

Two or three marvellous escapes are reported. In 
one case a child crouched under a machine, and a 
rafter falling over her, she was taken out alive, while 
not three feet away was the mangled body of her 
juvenile companion. Another instance was that of a 
very tall young fellow who stood in the window of 
the third story. He was shot out amongst the fall- 
in ce bricks, and, although falling such a height, and 
amongst such a mass of bricks, tiles, and beams, with 
the exception of a scratch on the face, and a rent or 
two in the trousers, escaped injury. Such an escape 
borders on the miraculous. The number of actual 
dead may be set down at thirty, but the large 
number of serious injuries will probably largely 
supplement this total. 

" Mr. Eastham, the English engineer, who has been 
superintending the erection of the machinery, made 
the following statement : — ' I left my house — just at 
the side of the mill — at about 6.46, and was walking 
just round the building when I felt myself stagger like 
a drunken man. I heard a strange rumbling noise, 
and, turning to see what it was, I noticed the mil] 
beginning to rock. It rocked two or three times, 
and then I saw the roof collapse, and the walls give 
way at the third story. After the crash there was 
a sudden silence — a silence which could be felt. 
Part of the wall fell on my cook's quarters, demolished 
them, and killed instantaneously both the cook and 

N 



178 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

his wife. I went around the building, and by the 
time I arrived there the employes were already at the 
work of rescue, and they worked like demons. I 
should have finished my work on Friday next, and 
had booked my passage on the P. k 0. Had I been 
twenty seconds later leaving the house I must have 
been killed.' " 

To return to Archdeacon Warren's house. We were 
still gathered round the breakfast-table when Mr. 
Fyson came in to say that he should fully understand 
if my father did not now feel able to address the 
Divinity students, as it had been previously planned 
he should do at 9. a.m. But my father said that if 
the students were ready he would certainly keep to 
the plan ; and he gave them two addresses, the first 
in their respective class-rooms, on reading, Euclid, 
etc., and the second, in a larger room, on "The 
Divinity of Our Lord." The students then presented 
him with the following address : — 

" There is no greater joy in life than meeting with a 
friend. Men say that it is a happiness to have a visit 
even from one who only comes in from next door so 
to speak ; how much more to have the honour of 
seeing one who has come from a land so many 
thousands of miles away, and so different from our 
own in climate and language and customs. Formerly 
there was only envy and strife between nation and 



THE GREAT EARTHQUAKE. 179 

nation, between man and man : but Jesus Christ Our 
Lord has broken down the partition wall, and there 
is no longer variance between the peoples ; they are 
brothers and sisters in the sight of God, the common 
Father, all bound by one law of Christ, " Love one 
another." We think it is an exemplification of this 
truth that we have the happiness of meeting for the 
first time with you as friends with a real friend, as 
disciples with a dear master, as children with a 
loving father. We are very glad that you have come 
to see the work of the Church in this country, in 
which your son is working as our Bishop, and we 
heartily thank God for sending you here. We had 
heard long before of your name as Bishop of Exeter, 
as the father of our dear Bishop, as one who takes a 
very warm interest in the C.M.S., and also of your 
fame as an author and poet ; but hitherto we have 
had no opportunity of seeing you face to face, but 
now our hearts are filled with joy to meet you in this 
room and listen to your words. 

" We understand you have already spent some 
weeks in the country, and, therefore, you have no 
doubt seen some of the beauties of nature here, such 
as Mount Fuji, Lake Biwa, etc. ; and we hope you 
have also noticed the progress made in civilisation, 
and more especially the great progress in education 
as shown by the statistics of schools. Eeligious 
progress has also been very remarkable. Christian 

N 2 



180 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

missionaries of course meet with difficulties of various 
kinds ; but victory has been on their side, and there 
is no doubt that it will be so still, God being their 
helper. There are more than 80,000 Protestant 
Christians ; the whole Bible has been translated, and 
many tracts published. Lately Unitarians, Univer- 
salis ts, and German Rationalists have appeared and 
disturbed the faith of some, and there has been a 
falling off in some denominations, but not in the 
Church of Japan, thanks to its firm system and 
articles of faith. 

" To speak of the Divinity School, it has not been 
established very long, and of course there has not 
yet been any large number of graduates ; but most 
of our evangelists have come from this school, and 
there are nineteen at work in various districts. 

" We have read how in olden time Leonidas the 
Spartan King, with three hundred followers, at Ther- 
mopylae stopped Xerxes with his millions, and there 
fell fiditin£, and that on their monument was in- 
scribed the words — 

' Go, stranger, and to Laceda^mon tell 
That here, obeying her behests, we fell.' 

" If any one interested in missionary work inquires 
about the missionaries in Japan, we reply that the 
missionaries here are devoting themselves to their 
work, and are fighting the battle as those who sent 
them would wish. Finally, we have heard how that 



THE GREAT EARTHQUAKE. 181 

when in England you have again and again devoted 
special energies to the cause of Missions : we trust 
that on your return you will still continue to urge 
the importance of pushing forward missionary work, 
and especially in this our land of Japan. 

"We thank you for your address, and assure you 
we shall not forget your words. We are sorry you 
are unable to make a longer stay in our country, 
and we pray that God's blessing may go with you 
on your journey home, and keep you from all evil by 
the way." 

While my father was at the Divinity School my 
brother went out to telegraph inquiries to Tokyo as 
to our friends there. He received no answer from 
them, and in time we learned that all telegraphic 
communication between Osaka and the north had 
been cut off, and the railway by which we had 
travelled only the previous week had been broken in 
a dozen places. 

Later in the morning we started in jinrikshas with 
Archdeacon Warren to visit the C.M.S. High School 
for Boys on the other side of the city, which had been 
lately built and opened, chiefly through funds provided 
by the Rev. F. E. Wigram. The road did not take us 
near the factories, and the only very noticeable mark 
of the recent earthquake were the litters we passed 
now and then, in which the wounded or dead were 
being carried to their homes. The streets of the city 



182 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

seemed very quiet, the people showing wonderful 
self-control, though the sad and utterly hopeless look 
on some of their faces made one realize what it must 
be to have sorrow and death so close, and yet no 
comfort from religion to help in this world or the 
next. 

When we arrived at the High School, a large 
building on the outskirts of Osaka, we found our hosts, 
Mr. and Mrs. Price (the Principal and his wife), and 
their guests thinking and talking of little else but the 
events of the morning. They had rushed out of doors, 
but neither they nor any of the boys had sustained any 
injury. After luncheon we went all over the school- 
house, and heard the boys, about fifty in number, 
translate into English, and work out a problem in 
Euclid. We also visited their dining-room and 
dormitories, and on returning to the large schoolroom, 
my father made a speech to the assembled school, 
to which one of the boys returned a very grateful 
answer in English. The school, though only lately 
opened, is doing a very good missionary work, and 
since we were at Osaka some of the pupils have 
been baptized. The Principal said it was rather 
difficult to secure as many high-class boys as he 
would like on account of the powerful attraction 
which draws so many of them to the great schools at 
Tokyo. However, nobody could have wished to see 
a brighter, more intelligent band of pupils than those 



THE GREAT EARTHQUAKE. 183 

who gathered round us that day. Before we left they 
begged that we would be photographed with them. 
A group was therefore arranged, the boys and their 
masters standing on the verandah, and the two 
Bishops and the Archdeacon, and Mrs. Bickers teth 
and myself sitting just below in the quadrangle. 

We then returned to Osaka in time for English 
Evensong at 5 p.m. in the Chapel of the Divinity 
School, at which special thanksgivings were offered 
for our safety during the earthquake. 

In the evening all the members of the Church in 
Osaka gave a reception to my father. At first there 
was some idea that it would be unsafe to gather so 
many persons together with the possibility of another 
earthquake. But though the earth had continued 
to throb at intervals for some time after the great 
shock at 6.30 a.m., as if taking a long breath, it 
had now ceased to do this, and all agreed that the 
reception might be safely held. We assembled in the 
large schoolroom of Bishop Poole's Girls' School at 
7.30 p.m., and as I looked at the closely-packed chairs 
and forms it must be confessed that the thought just 
crossed my mind how very useful the big doors and 
French windows of the room would be in case of a 
sudden rush into the quadrangle. 

But we would not have missed the reception on any 
account. After some hymns and prayers the senior 
Japanese clergyman gave an address of welcome to 



184 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

my father, in which he said how they (the Japanese) 
fully understood how he had left his work, and his seven 
hundred and fifty clergy in England, for a while in 
order to show his sympathy with the Church in Japan, 
and how helpful they felt this sympathy to be to them. 

The Archdeacon having translated this speech into 
English, my father replied, also by interpretation, 
and gave a description of all the work he had seen 
in Osaka, saying that he felt the various institu- 
tions contained within themselves the germs of a far 
greater work which would yet be wrought in the city. 

The Japanese then explained they wished to let us 
hear some of their national music and to show us 
some specimens of their floral decorations. They had 
also arranged some pictures in coloured sands of their 
most famous places, and would ask our acceptance of 
some coarse food, this being the invariable way in 
Japan of describing a gift of food to another. Some 
blind musicians were therefore brought on the plat- 
form, who played some very elaborate compositions 
on the Koto and Samisen, interspersed with a few 
songs. A cup of tea, and a paper bag full of pretty 
coloured cakes (exactly the same number for each 
guest) were then presented to us and to everybody 
else in the room, one of the cakes being stamped 
with the Union Jack of England and the Rising 
Sun of Japan, evidently as a graceful allusion to 
the friendship between the two nations. A Japanese 



THE GREAT EARTHQUAKE. 185 

tea of this sort is a very short affair, plates, tables, etc., 
being unnecessary, and the guests taking most of the 
refreshments home with them. In a few minutes, 
therefore, this part of the entertainment was over, 
and we were taken round the room to see the 
flowers, and the pictures in coloured sands. The 
flowers were beautifully arranged in tall vases, and 
the delicate shadow-effect so dear to Japanese well 
marked on the white screens behind them. But the 
trays containing the pictures in coloured sands were 
to us quite a novel specimen of Japanese art, and we 
never saw any others like them during our tour in 
Japan. They had been done by one man during 
the afternoon, and were marvels of delicate handi- 
work. By a skilful disposition of sands, glittering 
stones, and small lumps of clay he had produced on 
about five trays a vivid representation of Mount 
Fuji ; the Imperial bridge at Nikko ; the seashore at 
Kamakura, and other spots of beauty and interest 
evidently considered to be the common property of 
the nation. 

This exhibition concluded the reception, and after 
many courteous farewells from the Japanese we all 
returned home, and managed to get a good deal of 
sleep, in spite of two further slight shocks of earth- 
quake during the night. We had lights burning in 
our rooms and all the doors unlocked, so as to run 
out quickly if necessary. 



186 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 



CHAPTER X. 

THE " HYOGO NEWS " ON THE EARTHQUAKE. 

The leading Kobe newspaper, the Hyogo News, 
sent off a party of special correspondents to the 
worst earthquake districts, Gifu, Ogaki, etc. Alas, 
the accounts which they wrote to the newspaper 
increased rather than diminished the horrors of what 
we had already heard through the people of Osaka. 
I give a few extracts from their daily letters 
during the week of earthquake, as in spite of very 
imperfect English they will bring the horrors of the 
earthquake more clearly before my readers than any 
later description could do : — 

" Ogaki, 31st Oct. — Leaving Tarui, the road curves 
past a magnificent sweep of hills, wooded almost to 
the summit, with Ibukiyama looming up in the 
distance. We had not proceeded far before we dis- 
covered that the kuruma-men* alarmed at the earth- 
cracks, were taking us direct to Gifu, instead of 
to Ogaki. We remonstrated, and for a time they 
were obstinate, but finally gave way. A short ride 
through a charming coppice brought us on to the 
* i.e. jinricksha men. 



THE "IIYOGO NEWS" ON THE EARTHQUAKE. 187 

Ogakikaido, and directly afterwards we passed a 
hamlet, where the first really disastrous effects of the 
earthquake were visible. Some ten or a dozen houses 
were demolished, in some instances the roofs having 
fallen bodily on the unfortunate inmates, while others 
were broken into fragments, many of those still stand- 
ing having been shored up, and being in a tottering 
condition. A small temple had been knocked over, 
and lay at an angle of forty-five degrees. The 
frightened survivors had constructed tents of tatami 
by the roadside, preferring the security of the ground 
to the instability of their ricketty tenements. The 
next hamlet told a similar tale, and then we came to 
a bridge badly cracked at both sides, a long transverse 
fissure running through it to some distance on the 
solid road beyond. A little farther a group of half a 
dozen houses lay prostrate, and beyond them a string 
of some seven or eight two-storied cottages on the 
left-hand side of the road, wdiile those on the right- 
hand side were comparatively uninjured. Large 
fields of rice stood waiting the reapers, but many of 
the peasants are themselves felled by the Greater 
Reaper, and as their erstwhile neighbours are either 
busy on the ruins, or too affrighted to resume their 
wonted avocations, the fields are deserted. Later, in 
the centre of the roadway we came to another deep 
fissure, about twenty feet long and six inches wide, 
the jinriksha men exhibiting great hesitancy in 



188 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

passing it. Parallel with the railway used to be the 
village of Shiota, now an indescribable mass of mud, 
plaster, shattered tiles, and broken beams, over which 
we had to pick our way. Only one or two of the 
more solid structures remained, while the temple was 
in ruins. A bridge over a small stream brought us 
to Ogaki. The bridge was badly wrecked and half- 
broken, and the road leading to it deeply fissured. 
Ogaki was a long straggling town, consisting mainly 
of one winding street. We entered the western 
portion, and a scene of unutterable desolation pre- 
sented itself. The first part was entirely desolated 
and in ruins. Shops of all kinds could be detected 
by the debris. Here a porcelain store, there a 
cabinet-maker's, next a curio-shop, and again an iron- 
monger's. Over all hung a cloud of dust caused by 
the working of the labourers in their search for dead 
bodies. Now and then we saw them being taken 
out, some an unrecognizable battered mass of flesh, 
clothes, and dust, others just slightly disfigured." 

Later on the same day the same correspondent 
wrote from Grifu : — " Ogaki felt the shock worse 
than any other town. The houses simply collapsed 
wholesale, and the large number of deaths — over a 
thousand, according to a record which the official 
of the hospital kindly showed me — shows how sudden 
was the catastrophe. 

" Passing close to the river bank over the burnt 




? :■<■■ ■■ r ^-i _ 



THE "HYOGO NEWS" ON THE EARTHQUAKE. 191 

embers, we came into view of the castle and the 
school, and saw beyond, in a grove of blistered trees, 
the remains of the East Honganji temple. In the 
latter at an early hour on the fateful morning three 
hundred people had congregated at a special matsuri 
service in connection with the harvest. The huge 
edifice, which a spectator the day previous had 
estimated, from its solidity and massive appearance, 
would last a thousand years, had crashed down, and 
massacred the whole of the devoted worshippers, 
whose corpses were afterwards calcined by the huge 
conflagration. The fire originated in a dyeing works, 
the half-a-dozen iron crucibles still marking the spot. 
" Turning the corner of the castle wall, in which 
huge rents appeared, and where the watch-towers in 
their dilapidated appearance betrayed signs of their 
transit through an ordeal compared with which the 
strongest shock of arms it ever had to undergo was 
mere play. Farther on was the school, which, 
although cracked and shattered, still stood well. 
This had been transformed into a hospital, and 
here were brought the injured sufferers. It was a 
melancholy sight. A sad procession approached the 
gates. Women leaning on the necks of their friends, 
with faces battered and heads bandaged, just able 
to reach the enclosure ; others under the futons in a 
hastily-constructed ambulance, pale and ghastly to 
look upon. Inside [we heard] the moans of the injured, 



192 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

and the sickening spectacle of bandages and blanched 
faces. Inside [we also saw] a number of doctors with 
their very limited appliances and almost entire 
absence of lint, where one woman was just having an 
arm amputated at the shoulder, another having an 
ugly wound in the leg stitched. The official gave us 
the number of deaths at 1,000, and the wounded at 
637. The police corps suffered severely, many of 
them being killed. 

" Leaving the town we next proceeded towards Grifu. 
We learnt that the railway and the road had both 
been badly served. The road was reported to be 
in indescribable confusion, and the railway equally 
knocked about. Thinking the railway of more 
importance, I selected the line, and walked the whole 
distance, some thirteen miles, while one member of 
the party went by the road. It was worth the 
walking. The towns may display the worst horrors, 
but that line gives the most -perfect picture of the 
gigantic impetus of the shock anywhere obtainable. 
Ogaki Station simply does not exist. The ruins of it 
are there, but the contorted rails, twisted and curved, 
the collapsed soil, the ruined sheds, the destroyed 
water- tank, are all grim evidences of the earth- 
quake's awful force." 

He then describes the route from Ogaki to Gifu : — 

" Leaving the station, we followed the track for 



THE "II TOGO NEWS" ON THE EARTHQUAKE. 193 

the first four hundred yards, meeting with nothing to 
attract notice. At length we reached a small bridge. 
The rails just before nearing it were of a serpentine 
order. Some of the sleepers had risen, and others 
were depressed. The solid masonry of the structure, 
however, was standing uninjured, though the ground 
had given way on each side for a distance of about a 
couple of feet. From there to Gifu there were at 
least a hundred of these bridges, but this one was 
a type of all the others. The ground had given way 
around all of them, in some cases as much as ten 
or twelve feet, but- with only one exception the 
masonry remained almost intact, speaking volumes 
for the solidity of construction and the excellent 
mortar used. As to the rails, we never noticed them 
broken in a single spot. Some places they were sup- 
porting bridges of many tons, at others were twisted, 
curved, and strangely distorted ; but never in a 
single instance had they broken, though in one case 
the rivets had given out and the joints parted. The 
men who laid that permanent way laid every part 
with the greatest care. The exception to the little 
bridge was curious. One of the walls had moved 
bodily around, making half a right-angle with the 
line of its former position, while the opposite side had 
fallen backwards a couple of feet. The rails here 
were a singular sight. They curved on approaching 
the bridge like a figure S. Beyond it they went up 

o 



194 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

and down like magnified plough-ruts, and the earth 
beneath in places had subsided some ten or twelve 
feet. 

" The shock which thus pulled these rails so 
tremendously out of their natural position must have 
been awful, and we were quite prepared to hear a 
peasant tell us that it bounded up a foot or eighteen 
inches. Meanwhile, along both sides of the railway 
evidences were painfully numerous. Hamlets and 
temples, solitary farmhouses and outbuildings, had 
shared a common fate. In one little village of a 
dozen houses only one made any pretence of standing, 
and that was so very shaky that it was dangerous to 
go near it. The people were living in the bamboo 
groves, and the fields were deserted. From Ogaki to 
Nagoya, which we reached next day, travelling in 
and out over something like seventy more odd miles, 
we only counted thirty-two people at work in the 
fields, which had all ripened for the harvest. 

"Reaching the Hiraniugawa bridge, a magnificent 
iron structure on brick piles, we had to tread care- 
fully over the vibrating sleepers. We could not see 
the rails all the way looking at the bridge from 300 
yards. There were hills and valleys in the erstwhile 
straight line, marking the alternations of subsidence 
and upheaval. The bridge had stood nobly. It was 
an arched structure of iron, and though the rails 
were twisted into curves, sleepers splintered, and 



THE "HYOGO NEWS" ON THE EARTHQUAKE. 195 

rivets snapped, the bridge itself had no signs of the 
tremendous shaking it had undergone. Not so the 
supports. They were built of brick, and close down 
to the river bed were lateral arches at right-angles 
to the flow of the river. These proved the weakest 
spots. The first pier stood intact amidst the wreck 
of destruction. The second had cracked at the base 
of the stem just where the little arch divided the 
erection. The ominous red streak in the white 
mortar ran all round the column. The next pile was 
equally as harshly served, while the one nearest the 
opposite bank was worse treated. It had cracked 
and sunk, and will require rebuilding 

' That embankment, built with so much care on the 
Hiraniugawa, has been frightfully damaged. The 
precipitation was not so excessive as at the banks 
of the Nagaragawa, but the fissures were sufficiently 
wide to be appalling. For a distance of thirty yards 
the ground had caved in and sunk fourteen or sixteen 
feet. One gigantic fissure ran its serpentine course 
for at least a hundred yards along what had been the 
summit of the bank, but which now lay depressed in 
the hollow. That fissure was in places four and five 
feet wide. Another big fissure ran transversely, 
while the ground was divided into little hillocks. 

"Passing clear of the bridge, an unprecedented 
view met our gaze. We could see as far as the Na- 
garagawa. It was like a toboganning road, with 

o 2 



196 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

its devious undulations twisted far, far out of the 
original order of the line. Between those two bridges 
the earth subsided more than we had yet witnessed. 
Outside the bridge the sleepers and rails were sus- 
pended in mid-air about eighteen or twenty feet, 
and the vibration, as we picked our way over them, 
was rendered the more unpleasant by a distinct shock 
of earthquake, whose approach was heralded by that 
low booming sound as of distant thunder, or the 
reverberations of big guns miles away. The tremor 
made the rails rattle, and though it blanched our 
cheeks — for the bravest man must quail before the 
awful phenomenon, and my courage is of the faintest 
— it did no other harm. But from that time forward 
those shocks were frequent, and they were always 
preceded by that ominous roar. Passing on, we 
crossed a small burn spanned by a three-arched iron 
bridge. It had staggered at the impetus of the 
shock, the massive stonework pillars had fallen back 
and split, and it lay resting on the outer edge of the 
support, almost turned completely over, only the rails 
preventing it being precipitated into the quivering 
river bed. 

" That intervening space between the two rivers 
was the worst treated of any I had yet seen, and for 
the first time we noted a big tree snapped off short, 
though later we saw several beyond Gifu. Here the 
fissures defy description. Sand and mud covered the 



THE "IIYOGO NEWS" ON TEE EARTHQUAKE. 197 

paddy fields for long distances. At one point we 
wished for a glass of water, for we had come to Tarui 
at eleven, and it was now three, and we had not 
moistened our lips. Seeing a farmhouse on the left 
which had not quite collapsed, we left the railway 
line, and struck across a paddy field. We had not 
advanced far before we came across a gaping crevice 
whose bottom could not be discerned, and following 
it, we at length came upon a small submerged tract 
of land, and found a mud geyser. It was about three 
feet six inches in height, and some six feet in 
diameter, its formation being that of a truncated 
cone with polished sides ; a cup-like lip stood at the 
southern end, and served as an exit for the warm and 
brackish water emitted from it. Instinctively one 
shuddered. What seething masses of heated elements 
might be surging within a few feet of us ? And the 
tremors were continuous. 

" Just at the entrance to the Nagarawa bridge we 
met Professor Milne. He had come along the line to 
pursue his scientific investigations, and had just been 
fruitlessly trying with a line to sound the depths of 
a gigantic fissure. . . . 

"... Mounting the suspended railroad, each step 
causing distinct vibration, we ascended the shattered 
fabric of what once had been the ' strongest ' bridge 
in Japan. It was 2,400 feet long, and consisted of 
eight spans each of three hundred feet, while at its 



198 



JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 



highest point it must be at least 75 feet over the 
river-bed. About mid-way it had fallen, a sad wreck, 
and an impressive commentary on the helplessness of 
mankind in the presence of Nature's fury. Each span 
was supported by three stupendous columns of cast- 
iron filled with concrete, and some four feet in diameter 




NAGARAWA BRIDGE AFTER THE EARTHQUAKE. 

at the base. The girders were all wrought iron, 
stoutly riveted. Yet it had so rocked as to shiver the 
sleepers like matchwood, and snap off stout rivets like 
thread. The strong pillars had snapped in the 
central span, two into three, and one into two pieces. 
The fall or the oscillation had carried the outside 
girder over the inside pillar, and it lay inclined on 



THE "HYOGO NEWS" ON THE EARTHQUAKE. 199 

the stump, while a huge fragment of the first column 
protruded through the opposite side of the metals. 

" The effect on the other pillars was variform. 
Some were flawless, others cracked : and, in one case, 
each of the three columns was broken at the point of 
contact with the earth, but had not fallen, while all 
over the dry watercourse the ground was riven. One 
could not pass the place without a feeling of awe. 
Continuing, the sights were similar, and on crossing 
the Nakasendo we could note how the made road had 
been broken. Once we met a poor fellow whose 
dejected mien betokened despair. He had lost father, 
mother, wife, and children, and alone had escaped. A 
boy of ten trotted along, carrying a couple of pack- 
ages. His mother, he said, was dead at Ogaki ; he 
was going to Gifu to find if his father still lived. 

" From the crossing of the Nakasendo to Gifu station 
there was nothing worthy of special note. The station 
was riddled as if a battery of cannon had made it a 
target. It was still standing, but at such an angle as 
to accentuate its dilapidation. Interior partitions, 
tables, walls, desks had been crunched up. The roof 
let in daylight almost everywhere, and doors had been 
wrenched off. Goods sheds had been thrown down, 
and consignments in them wrecked. A train stood in 
the station on the twisted rails, the only unhurt object 
visible. We noted the compartments, we remembered 
the unbroken rails along the route, and should have 



200 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

hailed it as a welcome resting-place for the night had 
not kind fates prevented. Outside the station was a 
waste of desolation. Tea-houses fallen, or waiting to 
fall, and over the western end a gloomy pall of smoke 
from blackened embers." 

At Gifu the correspondent paid a visit to Mr. 
and Mrs. Chappell, and wiote : — " Gifu was badly 
damaged, there being in all some 3,000 houses 
destroyed by fire and earthquake, but the loss 
of life had been less than at Ogaki. Indeed, it 
was easy to discern that Ogaki had felt a heavier 
blow. There the town was demolished by the earth- 
quake ; at Gifu but for the fire three-fourths of the 
houses would still have remained comparatively intact. 
All the people were camping out under mats, or any 
rough shelter they could find, but many of the deserted 
houses looked so little damaged, that, if permitted, 
most people would have had little fear of sleeping in 
them. The post-office had stood wonderfully well. 
It is a foreign-built building, and from the exterior 
exhibited few signs of the shock. But internally a 
ceiling had collapsed, killing two operators instan- 
taneously. 

" Just glancing at the town, we made for the house 
of the Kev. Mr. Chappell. At one time it must have 
been prettily situated, and its surroundings charming. 
Now it stands a battered mass amidst the debris of 
neighbouring ruin. We found Mr. and Mrs. Chappell 



THE "HYOGO NEWS" ON THE EARTHQUAKE. 201 

located in a rude tent made of shoji and mats. There 
they had congregated around them, several destitute 
Japanese, who shared that little space in common by 
day and night. We were total strangers, but were 
awarded a most kindly welcome. They; insisted on 
our having a cup of tea, and, though we outwardly 
remonstrated, we perhaps were inwardly delighted to 
receive hospitality under such circumstances. For we 
had tramped since eleven without bite or sup, and 
it was now 7.30. Our bags, with the provender they 
contained, we could not ascertain the whereabouts of, 
and to get food in a foodless town was impossible. 
But Mr. Chappell's kindness did not cease here. He 
listened to our narration of the impossibility of ob- 
taining accommodation, and insisted on the Japanese 
setting up for us some shoji and tatami, besides 
getting some futon so that we might rest for the 
night. We did so, and so well was the work per- 
formed that ' camping out ' was transformed from a 
privation to a pleasure. 

" Fatigue made us sleep soundly in spite of the 
constant tremors, and maugre the fact that all night 
long tom-toms and cymbals were beaten and trumpets 
blown to keep -the people on the alert in case of a 
further catastrophe. Just after midnight I was awak- 
ened by a tremendous booming sound, and felt the 
ground heaving heavily. The screams of the people, 
and the crash of one or two of the already damaged 



202 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

houses, the alarmed cries of the Japanese in Mr. 
Chappell's tent, made one feel somewhat daunted. 
But the shock was of short duration, and again falling- 
asleep, I knew no more until daylight, though I was 
informed that some twenty distinct shocks, besides 
continuous vibrations, occurred. 

" We were up early, a strong earthquake-shock 
dispelling slumber at about 5.30. Mr. Chappell 
insisted on giving us another cup of tea, and then 
accompanied us around the town. Though the 
desolation was not quite so complete as at Ogaki, it 
was still fearful to contemplate. Out of 5,600 houses 
over 2,225 had been burnt, 1,916 semi-demolished, 
and 948 in utter ruins. The death-roll totals some 
250, and the number badly injured 700. Later 
returns, I believe, have considerably increased this 
number. We walked down towards the place of con- 
flagration. En route we passed the people lying in 
the streets, some w T ounded and ghastly, moaning 
under futons, and now and then a corpse in a litter 
w r ould be borne by, having just been extricated from 
some ruined structure. The temple was knocked 
about most unmercifully. The huge granite columns, 
sixteen or eighteen feet high at the entrance, on 
which rested a rectangular block, were leaning at an 
acute angle against the lantern stand, and in immi- 
nent danger of being precipitated. A small river 
divides Gifu into two parts, and it was the stream 



THE "HYOGO NEWS" ON THE EARTHQUAKE. 205 

which prevented the total calcination of the town. It 
was littered, as at Ogaki, with masses of debris. The 
little footbridge over it was started and terribly shaken. 
That tiny streak of water formed the line of division. 
On the left were the smouldering cinders of 2,000 
homes, on the right, a shattered town, partially 
prostrated and partially tottering. Three godowns 
had withstood the flames, and although begrimed and 
sepia-tinted with soot, they stood alone, cracked 
and leaning, but standing still, and making blank 
desolation more prominent. Already, however, the 
courageous, but homeless, people were at work. 
Shocks were continuous, but this did not prevent 
them working assiduously at the erection of new 
sheds, whose framework was exactly identical with 
that of the thousands overthrown." 

Of the small towns between Gifu and Nagoya, the 
correspondent gave a terrible account. Kasamatsu, 
with a population of 4000, and 11,000 houses, 
had lost 1000 of its inhabitants, and had not one 
house left, 900 being burnt, and the rest utterly 
wrecked by the shock. At the village of Ichi- 
no-miya 84 persons had been killed and 200 
wounded. The survivors reported that columns of 
sand and water had shot up four feet into the air, 
and there seemed no reason to doubt the statement, 
as sand lay an inch thick in the road. At Nagoya, 
on the contrary, the destruction was less wide- 



206 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

spread than the earliest telegrams had led us to 
suppose. 

" It was," lie writes, " fortunately not destroyed, 
but 1052 houses had been overthrown, and 171 
killed, besides 270 injured. The stupendous castle 
wall on the western side had stood the shock 
nobly, but on the south there was a gigantic 
breach some twelve or fifteen yards long, from the 
crest of the embrasure to the bed of the moat. 
Heavy modern artillery firing at short range could 
not have been more effective. A small watch-tower 
was dilapidated, and the commandant's quarters were 
riddled by falling chimneys. Otherwise, but for the 
people camping in the streets through fear, there was 
little to indicate that Nagoya had suffered, so far as 
we could notice in our ride to the house of the Rev. 
and Mrs. J. Cooper Robinson. Both received us most 
hospitably. Their house had not suffered much, though 
they had camped out one night through fright." 

Mr. Cooper Robinson told him; "The American 
Nonconformist missionaries at Nagoya were engaged, 
at the time of the earthquake, in a prayer meeting. 
The building shook so badly that they thought 
it was about to fall, and all ran out the nearest 
way at the side. Just as they did so two huge 
chimneys fell on them, killing a husband and wife 
(Japanese) instantaneously and very badly injuring 
their child. Two others, a man and a boy, were 



THE "IIYOGO NEWS" ON THE EARTHQUAKE. 207 

so much hurt that they died directly after. Mr. and 
Mrs. Van Dyke were buried under the debris, the 
former receiving a severe cut in the head, and Mrs. 
Van Dyke having her hands crushed. Mr. Van Dyke 
was insensible for a few moments, but on regaining 
consciousness he immediately set about assisting the 
others. Finding himself weakening he went to his 
house, and it was then found that his wound was a 
very serious one. Our preaching-house suffered little 
or no damage. Dr. Worden's house is almost wrecked, 
and Mr. McAlpine's house is so much shaken that it 
will have to be rebuilt." 

Though the above are only a few extracts from the 
daily articles in the newspapers, it will be readily 
imagined how much they meant to us, and to all 
foreigners in Japan. We had already been preserved 
from injury in an unusually severe earthquake, yet 
lesser shocks daily reminded us that still worse 
experiences might overtake us at any moment. The 
sympathy felt by all for the Japanese was very great, 
and subscription lists were opened at once in Kobe, 
Tokyo, Yokohama, etc., in order to send relief to the 
thousands who had been left homeless and destitute. 

The various Missions did their utmost to send help. 
Miss Tristram and other ladies started into the 
country soon after we left Osaka, and one of the 
earliest telegrams my brother received from Tokyo 
contained a request that he would allow Nurse Grace 



208 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

(S. Hilda's Mission) and the Dispensary doctor to 
proceed to the scene of the earthquake. He consented 
at once, and, accompanied by Miss Thornton, they 
started on Nov. 3rd for Nagoya. Nurse Grace after- 
wards sent the following account of their doings to 
our missionary Guild of S. Paul in England : — 

"On Wednesday morning, October 28th, at 6.15, 
Miss Thornton and I were sitting in her bedroom, 
with our feet almost on the balcony which runs out- 
side her room, when we felt a severe shock. At the 
time we noticed how very unlike all former shocks it 
was. The house seemed to not only sway backwards 
and forwards, but to be bumped up at the same time. 
The rocking and movement lasted some time — it 
is said seven minutes. No damage in and around 
Tokyo was done, but the Professor of Seismology 
very soon gave notice that, before twenty -four hours 
passed, we should hear of some awful damage done, 
and that the shock felt in Tokyo was but the end of 
the earthquake. He also said that the vibrations of 
the earth were so strange and unknown, that all the 
instruments were ruined before the shock had ceased, 
and that they were now useless. Alas ! his words 
were only too true. Before evening telegrams came 
in from the large towns in Central Japan saying that 
many large buildings had been thrown to the ground ; 
in Nagoya the handsome new post-office, only lately 
opened, was a complete wreck, many lives being lost, 



THE "IIYOGO NEWS" ON THE EARTHQUAKE. 209 

as there was no time to escape. At Osaka, some 
little way from Nagoya, a large mill had fallen, 
burying about 300 men, women, boys, and girls in its 
ruins ; but it was not until quite the end of the week 
(Friday and Saturday) that full details arrived, and as 
one read the papers it really seemed as if it was too 
awful to be true. Thousands were killed, thousands 
wounded, and these last were all houseless and home- 
less. The villages for miles round had not a house 
standing. The police and public authorities of the 
different parts behaved splendidly ; they telegraphed 
that doctors and nurses should be sent down at 
once, as the wounded were in a pitiable condition. 
Rough buildings were run up in a few hours, and 
straw, thick and clean and soft, was put on raised 
boards as bedding for the wounded. 

" On Tuesday, November 3rd, after consent from the 
Bishop, Dr. Ojima, Nurse Rii San and I started from 
Tokyo by the 9.50 p.m. train en route for Gifu, which 
we were told was one of the worst places. The city 
had not only suffered very much from the shock, but 
owing to lamps burning at the time of the earth- 
quake, when the houses collapsed, the lamps, which are 
nearly always suspended from the ceilings, set fire to 
the debris, and quite half the city was burnt to ashes 
before the fire could be checked. We were told that 
Gifu was only one of many places which had suffered 
in the same way. Generally, in Japan, it is very 

p 



210 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

difficult for foreigners to move from the town they 
live in under certainly four or five days, as they 
may not travel without a passport, and the Govern- 
ment does not send one at the very quickest before 
four days. I felt that if I had to wait all this time 
it would be useless to go. So I went to see the Rev. 
J. Imai, and he kindly gave me a letter to the 
authorities stating what I wanted, and that, if I was 
to be any use as a nurse, I must go within the next 
twenty-four hours. Armed with this letter Miss Thorn- 
ton and I went to the Government offices, and asked 
to see the gentleman to whom the Rev. J. Imai had 
addressed the letter. We were shown into a room, 
and waited for a little time until some one came. 
He was not the one we had expected, but he was 
exceedingly polite, attentive, and most anxious to do 
all he could for us, and when he fully understood the 
urgency of the case he was most anxious to help us. 
He kept us waiting for about twenty minutes, and 
then returned and told us that, as the earthquake had 
been so awful, and there were so many wounded, the 
Government was very grateful for my offer, and they 
would let me have a passport if I would send for it at 
6 o'clock that same evening. Feeling very thankful 
we returned to finish packing drugs and bedding, etc. 
On Tuesday evening all was ready. A special service 
was held in S. Hilda's Chapel asking God's blessing 
on the expedition, and at 9.15 p.m. we started for the 



THE "HYOQO NEWS" ON THE EARTHQUAKE. 211 

station, several from the Mission coming to see us off. 
We had with us a good store of drugs, lint, and 
cotton wool. The girls in the school had been most 
energetic all the day, and had rolled a large number 
of bandages and teezed out old linen. The greatest 
excitement prevailed, and I could at last hardly find 
material enough to keep them going. 

" Owing to the railway having suffered so much, 
we could not get further than within 45 to 50 miles' 
of our destination. At 8.30 a.m. we reached Okazaki, 
and here we had to engage kurumas and carts for the 
luggage to go by road to Gifu. Midway exactly 
between Okazaki and Gifu lies Nagoya, one of Japan's 
largest cities. We started in our kurumas at about 
9.20 a.m., and the men promised they would have 
us there in six hours. At first, for a long way, there 
seemed to be no damage whatever done, all the 
houses were standing firm and steady ; but what was 
remarkable, and drew the attention of nearly all, was 
that shrines, temples, stone lanterns, etc., were all, or 
nearly all, thrown down, because, as a rule, these 
buildings are much better built than any dwelling, 
and stand shocks of earthquake well. As we drew 
nearer to Nagoya we began to see fissures in the road, 
and in some cases bad enough to cause a good deal of 
shouting, etc., in getting over them. At 12.30 noon 
we stopped for the men to get refreshments, we also 
doing the same, and very thankful we were to get 

p 2 



212 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

out and stretch our cramped bodies, for we had been 
travelling by rail all night and were beginning to feel 
tired. From this place we very soon began to see 
that the earthquake had been severely felt ; large 
fissures in the road came much more often, and in two 
instances we had to get out and walk, a very pleasant 
change in one way, as it changed our cramped posi- 
tion. At 2.30 p.m. we reached a village so near to 
Nagoya that there was no division of streets or 
houses. The streets of this place were completely 
covered and blocked with fallen houses, and in some 
parts we had difficulty in proceeding, but at last we 
reached a cha ya (tea house), where we again changed 
kurumas to reach Nagoya. As kurumas were easily 
obtained in this place, we arranged for the same men 
to take the whole number of us on to Grifu next day, 
but, as you will see, this did not happen. At Atsuta 
we really saw the first gigantic destruction of the 
earthquake. Scarcely a house was left standing, the 
whole place was utterly ruined ; the people looked 
absolutely ' scared,' and seemed to have nothing in 
the world to do but stand looking blue, hungry and 
miserable watching the carts, kurumas and people 
pass. At first, owing to my being a foreigner, the 
children began to run a few steps alongside of my 
kuruma, but this they soon dropped. The further 
we went the more hopeless and dejected every thing- 
looked. The streets were evidently, in the time of 



THE "HYOGO NEWS" ON THE EARTHQUAKE. 213 

prosperity, wide and handsome, but now, on either 
side, the houses were fallen and in ruins, or else those 
left standing were in such jeopardy of coming down, 
that, although well propped up and supported, no one 
dare live in them. The consequence was that the 
centre of the street was taken up entirely with small 
impromptu buildings, which formed a strong line down 
the very centre, thus making two streets instead of 
one. Many of the houses could scarcely be called even 
a shelter, because they were made of the shoji (paper 
screens) of the fallen houses ; over this was laid some 
matting, known in England as India matting. 

" All along the road to Nagoya the destruction and 
desolation got worse and worse. It was drawing in 
towards evening and beginning to rain, but the people 
stood about in groups of six, eight and ten, looking 
cold, lifeless, and utterly indifferent to what was 
going on around them. There was one thing only in 
life for them, and that was the ' great earthquake.' 
The oldest persons among them could not remember 
such awful destruction and death. Although cold 
and wet, with every appearance of a bad night, no 
one person seemed to have the power to protect the 
little shelter they had. A few women here and there 
were putting old futons or oil paper on the roofing to 
try and keep the children's part dry. The children, 
who, especially in Japan, are so jolly, full of life and 
spirits, until sometimes when walking along one 



214 



JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 



wishes they would not shout so much, were standing 
about with awe and fear stamped on their little faces, 
in many instances crying quietly to themselves. I 
could not help wondering a little why the children 




JAPANESE CHILDREN. 



should still be feeling the sadness so much, because it 
was just about a week since the earthquake, and, as 
we all know, children quickly recover from any shock. 
But I found out that many of them had lost one if 



THE "HYOGO NEWS" ON THE EARTHQUAKE. 215 

not both parents, and were dependent upon friends 
only, who themselves had lost relatives, house, and 
everything belonging to them. As we drove into the 
city of Nagoya, with its wide streets, there was much 
more life and activity. The inhabitants had roused 
themselves a little from their paralysed state, and 
were clearing the streets of rubbish. Carpenters were 
busy putting up the larger houses belonging to those 
who could afford to rebuild. Every one seemed busy. 
The destruction, though great, had not been entire, 
and many houses were left standing. These were 
wrenched, and in many instances would have fallen if 
they had not been propped up with long building- 
poles. In nearly all the streets the roofs of the 
houses and the slates had been loosened, and the 
women were doing the best they could to repair them. 
All the men were engaged in more important work. 
We reached one of the principal streets where the 
large and handsome buildings were utterly destroyed, 
and in many instances level to the ground. The tiles 
and slates of the roofs were almost ground to powder, 
and there was scarcely a whole one to be found. The 
buildings which had stood up so firm and strong at 
6.15 a.m., showing a rich and prosperous city, at 
6.17 a.m. were a mass of crumbling rubbish, with 
many human lives buried amongst them. 

" It is a fact that gives one a feeling of awe, that of 
the Christians sprinkled amongst this number so few 



216 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

were killed, so few wounded, and so few suffered in 
any way. In many cases theirs were marvellous 
instances of escape — houses left standing when all 
around were in ruins, so as to cause the heathen 
themselves to make comments as to why this should 
be so. We are bound to acknowledge that God took 
care of His own. 

" We passed along from street to street ; some 
seemed to be scarcely damaged, others again had 
scarcely a house perfect. On our way we saw the new 
Post Office, with its handsome stone facings, all but 
level with the ground. It consisted of two stories 
and a ground floor. In building it the builder had 
used only two bricks deep, and then afterwards only a 
brick and a half, so that, directly the shock came, the 
building snapped off as if it had been cut, just where 
the one and a half began. Business of all kinds 
seemed to be at a standstill. We then decided to 
remain the night, and push on to Gifu the next day. 
I sent the doctor with a letter given to me by the 
Eev. J. Imai to the Chief of the Police. We were 
rather disappointed to hear from him that he thought 
there were enough doctors and nurses at Gifu. But I 
still felt that there must be villages which had suffered, 
and, because of their unimportance, were perhaps re- 
ceiving no medical help. I therefore sent on the doctor 
to make enquiries, while I waited for Miss Thornton 
and the manservant belonging to S. Hilda's Hospital 



THE "HYOGO NEWS" ON THE EARTHQUAKE. 217 

to join me. She came that day, and we started with 
the luggage for Gifu. Miss Thornton has sent an 
account of our journey, so that I need not write more 
about this except to say that desolation and ruin met 
us at every turn. I was getting very anxious to reach 
Gifu early, so that, if we found work, we could push 
on that same day. As we left Nagoya everything, 
if possible, seemed getting worse and worse. The 
villages seemed to have scarce any people living in 
them, and we passed numbers evidently migrating 
to the towns, where probably they had relatives, and 
where food was being given by the Government. We 
reached Gifu about three o'clock and went straight to 
the Eev. J. Chappell, who we found living in a small 
shanty hastily put up in his garden, for, though his 
house was not down, it was in such a precarious state 
that it might fall any moment. Mr. Chappell gave us 
the address of our doctor's hotel, and we went there. 
He was sitting waiting for us, and told us that, if not 
too tired, we ought to go and report ourselves at the 
Ken-Cho. So we set out, and were conducted to a 
large room. Our cards were taken and presented to a 
man sitting at a table piled up with papers ; who 
directly he had read them got up and gave us a most 
hearty greeting, thanking us, in the Japanese custom, 
from the people, who as yet did not even know us, 
or that we were going to their village. After ar- 
rangements were made, and we had signed the agree- 



218 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

merit to stay a fortnight, if necessary, we were passed 
on to another official of higher grade, and again 
thanked. This man asked what luggage we had, 
and very kindly undertook to send it on for us, the 
Government paying all expenses. We returned to the 
hotel and made ourselves comfortable for the night. 

" I forgot to say that during the night I stayed at 
Nagoya the shocks of earthquake were constant, as 
often as every ten minutes or quarter of an hour — in 
fact, the ground was never still. In the night the 
shocks were sharper, and at three in the morning 
a violent thunderstorm came on at the same time, and 
the loud rumbling noise of the earth which preceded 
each shock made one feel how terribly God was visiting 
those parts. One could not but feel that it must be 
to teach the heathen that above all He is God. 

" To return to Gifu — all that night the shocks were 
frequent, two being so violent as to make us jump out 
of bed. At 6.30 a.m. next day we all started. It 
was a lovely morning, with just enough frost in the 
air to make us glad to wrap up. For some way the 
road was good, but we had only gone about three or 
four miles when we saw houses and buildings level 
with the ground. One large place we passed through, 
four ri from Gifu, had been burnt down. The houses 
had most of them fallen, and the lamps which were 
burning at the time set fire to the falling timber, 
and in a marvellously short time the whole place 



THE "HYOGO NEWS" ON THE EARTHQUAKE. 221 

was one mass of smoking ashes. From here to the 
village where we were bound the road was all but 
impassable ; we walked a good deal, and the kuruma 
men had to carry the kurumas on their backs over 
the great fissures in the road. Most of the way 
the road is made as an embankment, and is a fine 
piece of work. 

" We reached Takasu at 1.15, and were received by 
the Chief Officer of Police in his quarters, and served 
with Japanese tea by one of the policemen. The officer 
told us that he had secured three rooms in the Japanese 
hotel which was next door, and that, owing to the way 
the hotel was built, it had stood the shock well. The 
walls were wrenched, doorways twisted ; still, the 
uprights were firm and safe, and we need have no 
fears as to its safety. We went in, made all arrange- 
ments, and then were asked to go and see the 
temporary building which was being erected for a 
hospital and dispensary. As we walked through the 
village, though more than half the houses were down, 
and the remainder so injured as to make it absolutely 
necessary in most cases to take them down, the people 
did not seem nearly so stunned, but were busily 
trying to put the streets in order. The children were 
running about cheery and bright, and, as I found 
afterwards, ready for any joke they could make or 
find. The building consisted of coarse straw matting 
and bamboo poles. On entering, on each side was a 



222 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

large space — one side for men, and one for women. 
The first day we began work at the hotel, because the 
building was not finished, and the news that a Tokyo 
doctor and foreign nurse had come to help the 
wounded had travelled fast, and patients came before 
we had unpacked all our medicines and surgical 
dressings. It was Sunday morning, and we had in- 
tended to read Matins, but the patients were so eager 
and so impatient that they walked upstairs straight 
into the doctor's room, so we felt it would indeed be 
cruel to keep them longer. So many came that at last 
we had to get leave from the landlord to allow us to 
use a room downstairs, because the patients could not 
in many instances get upstairs. In they came — here 
a big strong man carrying an old woman on his back ; 
there another was brought on a shutter. One in a large 
basket ; another in a tub ; another on a stretcher ; all 
sorts and kinds of conveyance were used. If it had 
not been for the pained and suffering faces of the 
people the scene would have been most amusing. On 
the first day we saw forty-five patients. Looking at 
the bare numbers this does not seem many, but the 
reader must bear in mind that all, with about two or 
three exceptions, were surgical patients. No doctor 
had seen them, and they had only put on either resin 
plaster (a favourite remedy for wounds in Japan), or a 
piece of lanshi, a kind of soft paper. Many of the 
wounds were severe head cuts, varying from one inch 



THE "HYOGO NEWS" ON THE EARTHQUAKE. 223 

to three and a half inches long, and from a very 
slight depth to over half-an-inch deep. These took 
a long time to dress, and the hair had to be cut away 
all round the injured part for about an inch. By four 
o'clock we had been at work since 9 a.m. ; it was 
getting dark, and no new patients came, so we closed 
for the day, though a few sauntered in during the 
evening. Next day the hospital was ready, but 
though several came we had none to stay as in- 
patients. We worked hard and saw altogether fifty- 
five patients. The next day the new patients were 
decidedly fewer, but with those who had to have 
dressings done daily and the new ones, we saw sixty. 
" On Wednesday we heard that an English mis- 
sionary lady from Osaka was nursing the wounded 
at a village called Imao, about two and a half miles 
from us. I went over the next day to see, and found 
Miss Tristram, who had stayed here with us in the 
spring. We were very pleased to meet, and as she 
could make arrangements to leave she came back with 
me to Takasu. On my return I found plenty of 
patients waiting for their medicines. It was decided 
during the evening that I should go to Imao and help 
her. She is not a nurse, and had come to help the 
wounded at Imao because they had no one. The small 
hospital that she had was full of very severe cases, and 
no proper doctor being there, we felt strongly that 
the doctor could easily manage the patients at Takasu, 



224 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

and I ought to go and help Miss Tristram. Miss 
Thornton was obliged to return to Tokyo, and so, on 
Friday morning, we separated ; she, with Rii San, 
the Japanese nurse, to Tokyo, and I at 2.30 to Imao. 
I got there at about three, and set to work at once 
and saw about twenty patients. 

" At five o'clock the Prince Kumatsu, sent by the 
Emperor to visit the scene of the earthquake, was 
expected to come to Imao. Six o'clock came and 
he had not arrived. We and the doctors waited, 
and getting tired at last, we decided to go to our 
lodgings. But as is generally the case, just as the 
important people of the village had left, a runner 
came to say the Prince was coming, so messengers 
were sent off, candles bought, and in a remarkably 
short time things looked very different. We were all 
placed in a row, like good children, to await the 
Prince. He came heralded by many lanterns, which 
were borne by people in the greatest state of excite- 
ment. As he came in, we were severally introduced to 
him. It must have been the peculiarity of my dress 
and Miss Tristram's that attracted his attention, as he 
asked particularly who we were, and where we came 
from ; he then thanked us and passed on. I was 
much struck with his kind and courtly manner. To 
every patient he gave a kind and gentle word, and 
after seeing all, one of the gentlemen-in-waiting made 
a speech to them and gave a message from the 



THE "HYOGO NEWS" ON THE EARTHQUAKE. 225 

Emperor. After he was gone we went down to our 
shanty and went to bed. It would be scarcely 
possible to really describe this building, which, like 
the hospitals, was built of straw mats and bamboo. 
The floor was covered with tatami, and round the 
walls was a rope on which to hang our clothes, etc. 
One side was open entirely, and if we had not had 
plenty of warm blankets and bedding it would have 
been very cold. On a small charcoal fire our evening 
meal was cooked, consisting of broiled fish, boiled 
eggs, coffee, and very stale bread, which I found the 
next morning was green with age and mildew. As it 
was dark neither Miss Tristram nor I found this out, 
though afterwards we confessed to one another we 
thought it tasted oddly 

"The next morning I went over to Takasu, and 
found that on Friday afternoon eighteen patients had 
come into the hospital, and that the whole number 
had gone up rapidly. The Prince had been, and 
been very troubled to find no proper nurse, and had 
sent to ask me to return. I never received the 
message, but decided at once to remain. All Saturday 
and Sunday I worked away ; on Sunday morning 
single-handed dressing twenty-eight wounds, and 
making up twenty-three bottles of medicine. Fifty- 
one patients came between 7.30 a.m. and 12.45 
noon, but, as often happens, the number suddenly 
dropped. Nearly all under treatment got well, and 



226 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

I felt the others would do perfectly if they had 
the means for dressing the wounds given to them. 
The Government had sent two women and a man to 
nurse the patients and a servant to cook the food, 
and, to my surprise, in the evening two women from 
Osaka also arrived. I therefore decided to return to 
Tokyo next day with my servant, who had been 
invaluable all the time. 

" But before closing this, I should like to tell 
you of one or two of the worst cases. When I 
returned from Imao, the people in Takasu hospital 
were quite excited, and at first I was at a loss to 
understand it. But when I went to do one of the 
patient's wounds, she told me with the tears rolling 
down her face — ' Oh ! we thought you had gone and 
left us ; they all told us you were not coming back, 
and we were so disappointed, because we came in 
that you and your nurse might see to us/ I soon 
quieted them, and told them I would stay as long as 
I could. As I stooped over the in-patients, attending 
to them, the out-patients stroked my back as they 
passed and thanked me. I heard them say, ' Eh ! 
but she is kind to us poor folk.' Poor things, it was 
so new an occurrence to be treated with tenderness 
that they could not understand it. We had a present 
of several pounds of meat, and having more already 
than we could eat we thought that we would make 
some soup and have all the poor old people and 



THE "EYOGO NEWS" ON TEE EARTEQUAKE. 227 

patients invited to dinner. Miss Thornton was most 
clever, and by borrowing pans, buying vegetables, she 
made such beautiful soup that we all wanted to 
be among the guests. When we left Tokyo twenty- 
six yen was given to us to give away as we thought 
right. We consulted the Chief Officer of Police, and 
he told us to whom to give it. Each person had one 
yen (dollar) fifty sen, and also a few dresses made of old 
things, but warm and clean. One old man of seventy- 
three, whose head had a severe cut, and who came the 
first day, had lost all belonging to him as well as his 
house. The cut was sewn up, but it did not do well. 
I asked him if he had food to eat, because by the 
look of the wound I was sure that he must be nearly 
starved. A man who had helped us from the first 
spoke up then, and said, ' No, he was sure he hadn't, 
because he was well known to him, and was very 
poor.' Whereupon the old man said very proudly, 
' I have potatoes/ and every one laughed. We had 
some difficulty in making him see that potatoes 
once a day, and only that, would not give him 
strength enough for his wound to heal. So he 
was persuaded to come as in-patient, and in a 
few days he was nearly well. To this old man we 
gave a warm overdress, padded, and his delight was 
touching to see. He picked it up and laughed to 
himself, cuddling it up, and then, turning to the 
policeman who brought him for it, he said, ' Isn't it 

Q 2 



228 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

beautiful ? ' Then all at once he laid it down with 
such a sad face, pushed it towards me, and said to 
the others, ' It is too beautiful for me ; the lady has 
made a mistake, thank you.' We left him a few 
minutes to watch him. It was pitiable to see him. 
He talked to it, and patted it, and then got up to go 
away- — I was so struck to see the quiet, patient, 
unmurmuring manner which these poor heathen 
showed ; but we called him back, and at last made 
him understand that it was for him. The police- 
man told him that he must wear it, and not sell it, 
and, to prevent his doing this, made him promise 
to go and show it every week at the police office 
for the next two years ! 

" One boy, whose thigh was hurt, and put up in 
plaster of Paris, drew me some pictures. He was 
only eight, but they show great talent, and one of a 
warrior is well done. 

" It would be impossible to write about all who 
were interesting. Some, of course, were not so nice ; 
but, on the whole, I never had more thankful, satis- 
fied, grateful patients anywhere than these 168 poor, 
ignorant, heathen country people." 

The efforts of the Missions did not end here. After 
we left Japan my brother opened an Orphanage at 
S. Hilda's Mission for the children who had been left 
orphans by the earthquake, and a similar Orphanage 
was established by the congregation of S. Andrew's 



TEE "HYOGO NEWS" ON TEE EABTEQUAKE. 229 

Church at Tokyo, lie also founded a small home at 
Nagoya for aged persons who had lost all friends and 
means of support. All three schemes were grate- 
fully welcomed by the Japanese as a proof of the 
foreigners' sympathy in their great trouble. 




JINRIKSHA KUNNEK. 



230 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 



CHAPTEK XL 

NARA, OR AN ANCIENT JAPANESE CAPITAL. 

Oct 29. — On the morning of the 29th, the weather 
being beautiful, my brother said he would take us 
to Nara, a famous and very picturesque city, at one 
time the capital of Japan, and only twenty-five miles' 
journey from Osaka. The railway line to it had not 
been injured by the earthquake ; but about half-way, 
just before the train ought to have entered a tunnel, 
we were all turned out, and had to go by jinrikshas 
for a mile or so. We then went on in another train 
which was waiting at the other end of the tunnel. 
The reason for this was curious. The line had been 
made by Japanese engineers ; but their calculations 
had proved incorrect, and the tunnels they had made 
in each side of the hill had failed to meet in its 
centre. They were rapidly mending the defect, and 
a luggage train had already been through ; but the 
mistake afforded a good instance of the desire of the 
Japanese to manage everything themselves, even 
before they are in a fit state to do without foreign 
tuition. 

At Nara station we were met by a Japanese cate- 



NABA, OB AN ANCIENT JAPANESE CAPITAL. 231 

chist, who remained with us all day, and explained the 
various sights of the temples and city. Under his 
guidance we took jinrikshas, and, passing quickly 
through the town, entered a long avenue of fir trees, 
which led up to the principal temples. But we 
paused for a few minutes en route in order to visit 
some sacred fish, who were jostling each other in a 
motley group on the surface of a small lake. They 
fought hard for some pink cakes which we threw to 
them, diving the very second they caught one, in 
order to devour it in privacy. 

Our progress along the avenue was slow, for we 
stopped every minute or two to feed the sacred stags. 
There are numbers of them in the park surrounding 
the temples, and they ran up to our jinrikshas 
begging hard for the biscuits, which we had bought 
for them from women who had little stalls on each 
side of the avenue. They seemed to be one of the 
most noted features of the place, and a large number 
of shops in the town sold models of them in wood. 

We then passed through some torii — Japanese 
arches marking the ground as sacred — the paths 
beneath which were lined with hundreds of heavy 
stone lanterns. But among these lanterns we at 
once noticed the effect of the recent earthquake, large 
numbers being overthrown, and many hopelessly 
broken. 

The temples are approached by one or more long 



232 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

flights of steps. Their deep-pitched roofs are covered 
with grey tiling, the walls being coloured brilliant 
scarlet. As at Nikko, the. effect of the colouring 
was singularly beautiful, as we came almost suddenly 
upon them among the dark trees. 

The first at which we stopped was purely Shinto, 
and we had an opportunity of watching some curious 
religious dances which some girls were executing in 
an adjoining shed. They were dressed in white and 
scarlet, and had their faces plastered with thick 
white powder. Their movements were very slow 
and graceful. In one hand they held a fan, and in 
the other a stick covered with small bells, which they 
waved to the motion of the dance, while two priests 
accompanied them on some musical instrument. 
This was the only time we saw, or rather recognised, a 
Shinto priest, as they do not shave their heads like 
the Buddhists, nor wear a special dress, except when 
officiating in the temples. 

Our next pause was at a Buddhist temple, built on 
the side of the hill, and its roof decorated with hun- 
dreds of metal lanterns, looking like a fringe of small 
bells. The views of the wooded plain and of Nara 
from its platform were very fine, and we could see 
among the trees the roof of the hall containing the 
largest image of Buddha in Japan, and at some 
distance from where we stood. In order to visit 
this Buddha we returned to our jinrikshas, and were 



wra 



r aw?" 




W ,:.^VS A \ 



_f . i:_J; . Jr i . 



« -■•-^^S m. 



NARA, OR AN ANCIENT JAPANESE CAPITAL. 235 

taken rapidly to the limit of the park. On the way 
we passed a famous bell, thirteen feet in height and 
over nine feet in diameter, which hung in a strong 
wooden campanile, or belfry. This bell was probably 
struck every hour, like those we saw at Nikko and 
Kyoto ; but we were not fortunate enough to hear 
it while in Nara. The tone of such bells is most 
melodious, and reminded us of that produced by 
" Peter," the largest bell in the chime of Exeter 
Cathedral. 

The Buddha was also well worth a visit. The 
actual image is fifty-seven feet high, and seated on 
an enormous lotus flower. It is made of small plates 
of bronze, and the comparatively modern head is 
surrounded by a halo of gilded wood. It is much 
more effective than the one we saw in Kyoto, the 
figure being complete, but both evidently lack the 
artistic beauty of the famous one at Kamakura, not 
far from Tokyo. We had not sufficient time to visit 
that Buddha while at Tokyo, but even from photo- 
graphs could tell that its face possessed a dignity and 
characteristic self-concentration of expression which 
was wholly lacking in those at Kyoto and Nara. 

On our way to the station we stopped for a few 
minutes at the house of Mr. N., a leading member of 
the Japanese Church Synod, and an important man 
in the city. He had stood for Parliament at the last 
election ; but my brother told us be had not been 



236 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

returned because in some local question he had felt 
it his duty to do what was right, rather than what 
was pleasant and popular. 

He gave us a warm welcome, and, after taking off 
our shoes, we were ushered into his "foreign room." 
It had a gay carpet on the floor, and an orthodox 
round table in the middle, with some chairs pushed 
closely to it. But his politeness overcame all the 
stiffness of the surroundings. He sent immediately 
for some tea in tiny cups with metal saucers and 
a plate of sweets, and did everything in his power 
to make our short visit a pleasant one. The Mission 
congregation in Nara, of which he is a member, is 
in charge of an American clergyman, and numbers 
100 Christians out of a population of 44,000. 

We returned to Osaka before dark, and were dis- 
tressed to find serious accounts had reached the 
Mission of the effects of the earthquake in other 
districts. We now realized that, severe as it had 
been at Osaka, we were only on the outer circle of a 
much more terrible shock which had desolated the 
beautiful plain of Nagoya. A large part of Nagoya, 
Gifu, Ogaki, etc., had been thrown down, and the 
shock had caused fires, which Lad destroyed the 
greater part even of the ruins. 

All accounts agreed that the lesser shocks went on 
almost continuously in these cities, and we felt most 
anxious for the missionaries and Japanese friends 



NASA, OR AN ANCIENT JAPANESE CAPITAL. 237 

whom we had left so recently. During the evening a 
deputation from the Christians in Osaka came to beg' 
for our help in a fund which they were collecting for 
the sufferers (all non-Christians) from the factory 
disaster. They afterwards sent relief to their fellow- 
converts at Nagoya, and we were much struck by 
their prompt charity in both cases. 

At midnight we were wakened by a severe shock of 
earthquake. We rushed out of bed, but before we 
could get out of the house it had ceased. It made 
us feel the possibility of a repetition of Wednesday 
was by no means over. Yet the only course open to> 
us was evidently to go on simply and steadily with 
our usual life, knowing that God could guard us in 
another earthquake as He had done in the previous 
one. My father and brother and Archdeacon Warren 
therefore decided not to give up the expedition to 
Fukuyama, at which place my father had promised 
to lay the stone of the new Mission Church. They 
left Mrs. Bickersteth and me at Osaka early on the 
morning of Friday the 30th, with the promise of 
meeting us at Kobe the next day, where we were 
all to be the guests of Mr. and Mrs. Foss, of the 
S.P.G-. Mission. 



238 JAPAN A8 WE SAW IT. 



CHAPTER XII. 

FUKUYAMA. 

Oct. 30. — Fukuyama, formerly the capital city of an 
old daimyo, is situated on the Inland Sea of Japan, 
only a hundred and forty miles from Osaka. There 
is a line of railway between them, but the train only 
going at seventeen miles an hour, our party did not 
arrive until 6 p.m., though they had left Osaka at 
8.30 a.m. 

The Mission work in Fukuyama is the result of a 
visit paid some years ago by two lady missionaries, 
Miss Hamilton and Miss Julius. Under the care of a 
Japanese catechist, the congregation had grown year 
by year, and now numbered a hundred and three 
persons — " full," as my father wrote, " of earnest life." 
They were very eager to have a resident clergyman 
to direct them, and, in proof of this anxiety, had 
collected sufficient funds for a Mission Church. It 
was the stone of this Church that my father was to 
lay the next morning, and by a curious coincidence, 
the clergyman about to take charge of Fukuyama 
was the Rev. C. T. Swann (C.M.S.), an old " Cam- 



FUKUYAMA. 239 

bridge blue," whom my father had ordained both 
deacon and priest at Exeter. Mr. Swann was hoping 
shortly to settle in the city, with his wife and baby, 
and, though they would be many hours' journey from 
other English people, their work promised to be full 
of interest. The Christians received the two Bishops 
and the Archdeacon at 8 p.m. in a large room in the 
grounds of the old Castle of Fukuyama, and my 
father writes : " What would the daimyos have said 
to see their castle thus used by the disciples of the 
Cross ? " The reception included, as usual, an address 
of welcome, which was followed by some prayers 
and hymns, and the never-failing tea and sweetmeats. 
My father replied in a speech which Archdeacon 
Warren interpreted to the Japanese, and my brother 
having also addressed them, the party separated 
for the night. The English visitors slept in the 
native inn ; but the night's rest must have been rather 
short, as my father notes in his diary that they were 
wakened by cock-crowing at 4.15, 5.15, and 6 a.m. 

Oct. 31. — The laying of the stone of the new 
Church was at 8 a.m. The Christians took the 
keenest interest in every detail, and a large number 
of non-Christians were also present, watching every- 
thing that went on. The service began with an 
address from my father on the words, " In all places 
where I record My name I will come unto thee, 
and I will bless thee " (Exodus xx. 23), after which 



240 



JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 



he laid the stone, using for the purpose a silver 
trowel which the English clergy had presented to 
him. It had " Fukuyama " and the date stamped 
upon it, and afterwards made an interesting addi- 




JAPANESE BROOM MERCHANT 



tion to his collection of trowels at Exeter. The 
Japanese also gave him two specimens of the blue 
cotton towels which the Church Committee had pre- 
sented to each workman employed in the building. 



FUKUYAMA. 241 

These towels had a white cross stamped in the centre, 
and the name of the Church, " Epiphany," in Japanese 
letters. A towel would have seemed a curious gift to 
an English workman, but nothing could have been 
more appropriate to a Japanese. Among the lower 
classes a towel is put to every sort of use besides the 
ordinary one of the bath-room. On one occasion it 
will appear coiled round their heads as a protection 
from the sun, and on another it will be laid for the 
same purpose across the bamboo roof of a palanquin. 
It may serve as an apron to a jinriksha, or to tie up a 
weak place in its springs ; but nobody will be sepa- 
rated for long from a towel, and its loss would 
evidently be as serious to the Japanese as that of 
their pipe or their tea-pot. 

Immediately after the laying of the stone, a photo- 
graph was taken of the scene, but the dazzling sun- 
shine unfortunately made it rather an unflattering 
likeness of both English and Japanese. The two 
Bishops and the Archdeacon then paid a visit to the 
Mission School, which had been opened in a rough 
wooden building in the town. They left Fukuyama 
soon afterwards by train, arriving at Kobe at 6 p.m., 
where Mrs. Bickersteth and I were already settled at 
" The Firs," Mr. and Mrs. Foss's pretty house on the 
hill above the city. 

She and I had spent Friday and part of Saturday 
quietly at Osaka. The occasional slight shocks of 

R 



242 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

earthquake still continued, and we seemed to dread 
them more each day ; but the missionaries wisely re- 
commenced all the usual work in the schools, etc., 
and did their best to calm the anxiety of their people. 
Reports, however, of further and yet more alarming 
earthquakes were current in the city. On Friday 
one of them said that at midday there would be 
a terrible shock. Midday came, and only a very 
slight one occurred. The report then promptly 
changed to " Government had telegraphed to put it 
off until midnight ! " On Saturday morning a post- 
card arrived from Mrs. Chappell, the missionary's 
wife at Gifu, who had greeted us ten days before at 
the station. When the earthquake began her husband 
was away on his work in the country, and she was 
alone in the house with her servants. She was wakened 
by the paper screen collapsing on one side, and the 
wall crashing in on the other. In terror she rushed 
out on the verandah, and was pulled through part 
of its wall by her servants, escaping in her night- 
dress into the garden. We heard some of these 
details afterwards ; but her post-card was written 
soon after the shock. It said she was still in the roacl, 
where she had been living all day, terrified and alone, 
and that she wanted to know whether somebody 
from Osaka would not come to help her. Some of 
the Mission workers went at once, and found Mr. 
Chappell had by that time returned from Okasaki, 



F UK U YAM A. 243 

the place at which he had been preaching. He had 
had a narrow escape of his life, as the house in which 
he was sleeping had collapsed, and he had descended 
from the upper storey clinging only to the shoji, or 
paper screens. 

Mrs. Bickers teth and I left Osaka at 11.30 on the 
31st. A great many of the missionaries kindly 
came to see us off from the station, and an hour's 
railway journey brought us to Kobe, a large treaty 
port on the Inland Sea, with nearly as many English 
residents as Yokohama. It had not suffered like 
Osaka from the earthquake, but some of the shops 
were badly damaged, and a good many chimneys had 
come down, including all those of our host, Mr. Foss. 
He and his wife and their little son of six years old 
had rushed into the garden, and had fortunately 
escaped any injury from the debris of the falling 
chimneys. Like our friends at Osaka, they certainly 
allowed no anxieties of their own to diminish their 
unbounded hospitality to us. 



R 2 



244 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 



CHAPTER XIII. 

KOBE AND THE INLAND SEA. 

Kobe, where we spent the next five days, is one of 
the most attractive places that we visited in Japan. 
The mountains behind it often reminded us of those 
in the Riviera, and the long stretch of blue sea, with 
the island of Awaji in the distance, might well have 
been the Mediterranean from Cannes or Mentone. 
The city is divided into two parts — Kobe proper, 
where the foreign community live, and Hyogo, the 
old Japanese town and capital of the province of 
Hyogo. There is a small English Church, with a 
resident chaplain, the Rev. G. Weston ; and the 
Mission station — a very important one — is in charge 
of the Rev. H. J. Foss (S.P.G.). 

He and his wife had built their house on a hill 
above Kobe, and to our great interest we found that 
they had modelled it after one called " GroesfFordd," 
at Penmaenmawr, which we had occupied some years 
ago during a summer holiday and in which they 
had spent a day with us. It was a great pleasure to 
have all our party under the same roof again after 



KOBE AND TEE INLAND SEA. 245 

the anxiety and separation of the past week, and the 
following Sunday (All Saints' Day) was one of the 
most interesting that we spent in Japan. The only 
drawback was Mrs. Bickersteth's inability to leave 
the house all day. 

At 9 a.m. we went to a service in the pretty Japanese 
Church (S. Michael's), which has unfortunately been 
since destroyed by fire. It was filled that morning 
with a congregation of converts ; and after a sermon 
from my brother, and the confirmation of three per- 
sons, a Celebration of Holy Communion followed, at 
which forty communicated, only eight of whom were 
English. 

In the afternoon my brother addressed a large 
number of children in the English Church, and at 
five o'clock nearly every English person in Kobe 
(about 200 at least) met there for a Thanksgiving- 
Service for our preservation in the recent earthquake. 
My father preached, and immediately after his sermon 
special collects were offered, and the Te Deum was 
sung as an act of thanksgiving. It was a service we 
shall never forget. Every person in that crowded 
Church had been saved from imminent death, and the 
slight shock of earthquake that occurred just as the 
congregation were assembling reminded us that the 
danger might not yet be over. The offertory amounted 
to £20, and was devoted to the Earthquake Relief 
Fund. 



246 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

We spent the evening quietly at " The Firs," and 
met some of our host's usual Sunday evening guests — 
young clerks in merchants' offices, and members of 
the Mission staff, who all greatly value a Sunday 
evening with their English clergyman. 

Nov. 2. — We had no idea until the next morning 
that the news of the earthquake had been fully 
telegraphed to London, and had caused the deepest 
anxiety to our relations and friends at home, who 
by the dates of our proposed tour could reckon we 
were almost certainly in the affected districts. We 
had talked of telegraphing to them during the previous 
week ; but until Monday my father did not feel 
justified in doing so, because of the slight shocks that 
continued to occur every few hours. 

Early Monday morning, however, after a perfectly 
quiet night, he decided to telegraph home " All safe." 
He sent off the message soon after breakfast ; but we 
soon discovered it had crossed one of inquiry which 
had been sent off from Exeter on Saturday night, but 
which did not reach Kobe until Monday afternoon. 

Our family told us afterwards that they had ex- 
pected an answer all through that Sunday, and when 
none came, their anxiety became very great, and they 
could scarcely summon courage to open the telegram 
when it arrived, and was brought up from the lodge 
by our faithful head gardener very early Monday 
morning. Their anxiety was of course at once relieved, 



KOBE AND THE INLAND SEA. 247 

and they returned thanks in the Cathedral for our 
preservation on the following Sunday. My brother 
also received a telegram from the Church Missionary 
Society with inquiries for the members of their Mission, 
and we heard of other private telegrams sent to 
English people in Japan, which convinced us that 
very alarming accounts had reached England. 

AVe spent the day quietly in Kobe, my father 
and brother lunching with Mr. Weston, to meet the 
members of the English Church choir, and climbing 
with him afterwards one of the mountains imme- 
diately behind the city. Mrs. Foss kindly accom- 
panied me in a shopping expedition to the Moto 
Machi, a long and well-known street in Kobe, full 
of china, lacquer, bamboo, and paper shops. The 
various articles made in Japan from paper are 
truly astonishing ; they vary from windows to 
pocket-handkerchiefs ; and a ball of coloured paper 
string which I bought that day in the Moto Machi 
is so like good strong English twine that our friends 
at home have to take on faith the fact that it is 
genuinely made out of paper. 

Nov. 3. — This was the Mikado's birthday, and there 
was a public holiday in honour of the event. The 
banks and nearly all the shops in Kobe were closed, 
the ships in harbour were decorated with bunting, and 
a fine Japanese man-of-war fired a royal salute during 
the course of the morning. The people also wore 



248 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

their gayest costumes, and among the crowds in the 
streets I was interested to meet a party of men who 
had their hair dressed after the old style. That is, 
it was closely shaved in front, and a small lock from 
the back being brought forward, was tied on the 
crown of the head. The object in old days was to 
leave them perfectly free to fight, but in the present 
day, even in the country, the practice seems almost 
extinct. Women, indeed, keep strictly to the old 
elaborate arrangement of their hair, though it is 
usually done only once or twice a week, or on 
grand occasions, the high wooden pillows on which 
they rest their necks at night keeping it in order 
meanwhile. Economy is the reason given for this, a 
full Japanese coiffure being impossible without the 
aid of a hair-dresser. A man will explain his wife's 
unexpected absence from a party in this way : " My 
wife's hair was dressed, but she was prevented from 
coming at the last moment." Men have their hair 
cut short, in European fashion, and pig-tails are of 
course unknown in Japan, though this latter fact 
has evidently not penetrated into all the publishing 
world of England. It is only necessary to glance 
at the Christmas picture-books for children issued in 
1892, and a selection may be found of most unnatural 
little Japanese, the original of whose lengthy pig-tails 
might be hunted for in vain within the limits of the 
Mikado's Empire ! 



KOBE AND THE INLAND SEA. 249 

During the morning: Mrs. Foss took me to see the 
Mission School for Girls, in charge of Miss Birkenhead 
(S.P.G.). It had only recently been opened, but the 
house was in a good position, and they hoped it 
would attract many pupils. In the afternoon we 
went to see the annual Kobe regatta. The races 
were capital, especially one between the Kobe, Hong 
Kong, and Yokohama "four oars," which Kobe won 
triumphantly through the help of Mr. Swann, the 
young C.M.S. missionary, and former "Cambridge 
blue," who was shortly leaving to take charge of 
Fukuyama. He told us it would certainly be his 
last race, as he would have no time or opportunity 
for a boat-race in his distant post at Fukuyama. 

In the evening about one hundred of the Japanese 
Christians of our Church in Kobe gave an interesting 
reception to my father. The order of proceedings 
was much the same as at Tokyo and Osaka. After 
some hymns and prayers (one of the hymns being my 
father's " Peace, perfect peace," translated into 
Japanese), a pupil of Mr. Foss's large Mission School 
for Boys read an address of welcome in English, which 
was afterwards repeated in Japanese for the benefit of 
the audience. My father replied, with Mr. Foss as his 
interpreter, and it was amusing to watch the delight 
of the Japanese when their clergyman had to trans- 
late some praise of his own work. Tea and cakes 
were finally brought in, and we returned home very 



250 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

much pleased with the courtesy and warmth of feeling 
shown by the Japanese Christians of Kobe. 

Nov. 4. — The earthquake shocks had now become 
very slight, and we could generally sleep all night 
without being waked by that unmistakable quiver 
which we had learned to dread so much. The 
Japanese had prophesied that on this day, being a 
week after the 28th, there would be another terrible 
shock, but none came, though we heard that at Gifu, 
Ogaki, etc., the slight shocks were still almost con- 
tinuous, and the terrified people had no spirit to 
resume their ordinary life. 

We spent the day in an expedition to a mountain 
village called Arima. It was a lovely morning, and 
we caught the 7.30 a.m. train to Sumiyoshi, the next 
station to Kobe. The road between it and Arima 
was too rough for jinrikshas, and we therefore 
engaged kagos, i.e. Japanese palanquins, at Sumiyoshi, 
made rather longer than usual for foreigners, but 
at the best somewhat of a squeeze. A long fir 
pole was slung through the roof of each, and it 
was then carried by two men, with a third to relieve 
them every few minutes. For the next four hours 
the views were most beautiful ; the road leading 
for several miles through a mountain pass, in which 
Mr. Foss called our attention to several rice mills, and 
an incense mill which had been built near the stream 
that rushed down the valley. Then at last, when 



KOBE AND THE INLAND SEA. 251 

two-thirds of the way to Arima had been accomplished, 
we reached the summit of Rokko San, 3200 feet above 
the sea, and had a glorious view of the surrounding- 
country, and the long ranges of distant mountains. 
The descent for three miles to Arima was one of the 
loveliest bits of scenery and colouring that we saw 
during our tour, for at last the gold and brown tints 
of a Japanese autumn had begun to appear in the 
woods ; the maples stood out among the other trees as 
if on fire, so vivid was the scarlet of their foliage, and 
close beside us the path was fringed with ferns and 
large Alpine gentians and Michaelmas daisies. We 
enjoyed it all to the full, and it was not until we 
were in Arima itself, and in Mr. Foss's pretty summer 
cottage, that rain began to fall and lasted for several 
hours. 

It was too wet for us to explore the village ; but 
the people sent up specimens of their fine straw and 
bamboo work, and we had an amusing time, sitting 
in the verandah after lunch and trying to drive good 
bargains with the merchants. It is a great mistake 
to defer any shopping in Japan, with the hope that 
you will find the same things in another place, and 
thus avoid the trouble of carrying your purchases. 
As a fact, there seems very little trade between the 
various centres of industry in Japan ; the tortoise- 
shell work of Kobe and Nagasaki, the inlaid woods of 
Miyanoshita, and the straw work of Arima, seem 



252 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

confined to the places of production, and the goods, if 
exported at all, are supplied direct from them to the 
foreign market. For instance, I never came across a 
good specimen of Miyanoshita inlaid-wood work from 
the time that I was in the village itself, until I 
discovered one last summer at the Army and Navy 
Stores in London though at treble its original cost. 

The first part of our return journey to Sumiyoshi 
was very wet, but near the summit of Rokko San we 
met a man, who had been sent by the thoughtful 
owner of the kagos with oiled paper curtains to hang 
over us. They kept us splendidly dry, and the rain 
stopped some time before we reached the station. 
The kago men did not seem at all tired — in fact, Mrs. 
Bickersteth's bearers were still so fresh after the seven 
hours' journey, that they took to running with her 
for the last mile or two. It is all very well for 
jinriksha men to run, and over a smooth road the 
motion is very pleasant, but in kagos the result, on 
the contrary, is swinging and jolting of a horrible 
description ! My brother was too far behind to 
notice their" sudden move, and though Mrs. Bicker- 
steth and her coolies passed me and my more sober- 
minded retinue, the astonishment of seeing her rushed 
along in this fashion took away all my small stock of 
Japanese. I fear my evident amusement only added 
to the speed of her journey, and the men continued 
their gallop until they arrived at the station-door. 



KOBE AND TEE INLAND SEA. 253 

There my brother made them humbly apologise, 
and they came just like children to do so, putting 
their hands together and begging mutely for pardon. 

Nov. 5. — During the morning my father went all 
over Mr. Foss's Mission School for Boys, in which, 
two nights before, the Christian congregation had 
given us such a warm welcome. Mr. Foss devotes 
much time and labour to the school, and has the 
assistance of a capital English schoolmaster and his 
wife (Mr. and Mrs. Hughes, S.P.G.). They have now 
eighty-five pupils, and my father notes in his diary : 
" A most excellent school, all the fruit of Mr. Foss's 
labours." 

The weather was lovely, but we were obliged to 
devote all the morning to packing, as we were to 
leave Kobe that night for Kiushiu, the great southern 
island of Japan, where many of our journeys would be 
taken in jinrikshas, and heavy luggage would be out of 
the question. We therefore selected a few necessaries 
that could be packed in "hold-alls" and hand-bags, 
and sent all the rest by sea to meet us at Nagasaki. 

In the afternoon we finished our English mail, and 
also chose some interesting photographs of the earth- 
quake, which an enterprising Japanese had taken at 
Gifu and Ogaki only a day or two after the worst 
shock on the 28th. 

The Kobe Maru, the fine steamer of the Nippon 
Yusen Kwaisha Line, which was to take us down the 



254 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

Inland Sea to Kiushiu, did not leave Kobe until late 
at night, so we were able to stay at " The Firs " until 
after dinner, when our kind hosts insisted on coming 
to see us on board. It was a brilliant night, and the 
harbour was crowded with ships, each carrying a red 
or green light, and making quite a fairy-like scene as 
the boatman paddled us across with his single oar to 
the steamer. Our friends left us by 11 p.m., and we 
sailed at 4 o'clock the next morning, as I discovered 
from the vibration of the screw below, which woke 
me from a vivid dream that we were escaping from 
another earthquake ! 

Nov. 6. — The Kobe Maru was as well appointed 
as a P. and O., and we spent nearly all the day on 
deck, admiring the beautiful scenery of the Inland 
Sea. The crew, with the exception of a few Chinese 
stewards, were Japanese ; but the captain (Captain 
Haswell) was an Englishman, and he courteously 
invited us to sit in the wheel-house, as the wind was 
rather strong, and ordered " tiffin " half an hour 
earlier, so that we might see the narrowest straits 
through which we passed between 12.30 and 2.30 p.m. 
Other inmates of the wheel-house were a tame deer, 
and two delightful dogs, who seemed his constant 
companions. 

We steamed past hundreds of curious, cone-shaped 
islands, due to volcanic action, some of which were very 
bare, and others covered with vegetation, and cultivated 



KOBE AND THE INLAND SEA. 255 

to the very summit with rice fields. The constant 
change of our course revealed every few minutes new 
intersections of these islands and of the mountain 
ranges of the mainland, and we could often see three 
or four lines of distance. Sometimes we were shut in 
on every side, until it seemed impossible that our 




JAPANESE FISHING BOAT. 



ship should ever find its way out. Then the captain 
would point to an island just ahead, and say our course 
lay behind it, and sure enough in a few minutes we 
were " round the corner," so to speak, and in another 
lovely reach of sea. Meanwhile, our great ocean 
steamer made its way through hundreds of craft of all 
kinds, from the tiny sampan, in which the boatman 



256 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

was holding up a straw mat to catch the wind, to the 
big junk, labouring along with its great square sail 
and heavy load of rice, or the little coasting 
steamer, creeping slowly from town to town along 
the thickly-populated shores of the Inland Sea. 

In one of the largest islands, called Awaji, there 
is a population of 180,000 people, and my father 
notes in his diary : "It sorely wants a resident 
European missionary and his wife, for its social 
influence is great, and the Japanese say, ' Awaji is 
the head, Shikoku the breast, and Kiushiu the legs,' 
because so many ruling men have been born in 
Awaji." A missionary station had been started there 
by Mr. Foss of Kobe, and a native catechist was now 
at work ; but everything would spring into redoubled 
life and energy could a powerful English Mission 
supplement his efforts. 

We stayed on deck until it was too dark to see any 
longer, and retired to our cabins early, as the Kobe 
Maru was due in Shimonoseki Straits (between 
Kiushiu and the Main Island) at 11 p.m., and Captain 
Haswell had promised to send us ashore in a little 
steam-launch at half-past four the next morning. He 
fulfilled his promise to the letter, and we duly em- 
barked on the launch by starlight. But our cruise in 
her lasted longer than either the captain or we had 
expected, for the sailors insisted on taking us to the 
opposite coast of the Straits, in order to have our 



KOBE AND THE INLAND SEA. 257 

luggage passed by the Custom-house officer, before 
they would laud us at Moji, the northern port of 
Kiushiu. Remonstrances were of no avail, and we 
steamed across, luckily over perfectly smooth waters, 
to the opposite side, where we routed up the Customs 
officer, who was too sleepy to do his work thoroughly, 
and let us off with the inspection of two tiffin baskets 
and one black bag ! Then at last we were allowed to 
land at Moji, and as the train did not start until 6.30 
we were in plenty of time for it, and had half an 
hour to wait at the station. 

The Kiushiu railway had been opened very recently, 
but the trains were as comfortable as those in the 
Northern Island, and my brother said the line had 
already proved an immense convenience to him, as it 
took him in a few hours to places which had formerly 
involved two days' hard travelling in jinrikshas. The 
country near Moji is very pretty, and we immediately 
noticed several differences between it and the Main 
Island ; for instance, wax-trees, which produce the 
vegetable wax from which most of the candles in 
Japan are made, were very abundant ; the race of 
peasants also looked more powerfully built, yet they 
did not seem to do much of the heavy farm- work them- 
selves, but used horses, which had been a rare sight, 
indeed, in other parts of Japan. There seemed no 
chance of breakfast before we reached our destination, 
Fukuoka, at 9 a.m., and we began to get very hungry, 

s 



258 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

as several hours had passed since we left the Kobe 
Maru. But at a station about half-way, my brother 
spied a boy on the platform who was selling white 
wooden boxes of hot rice and curry. A box, including 
a neat pair of chopsticks, cost twopence, and we soon 
invested in four, from which we made a capital break- 
fast. About 9.30 we arrived at Fukuoka, a large 
town on the northern coast of Kiushiu, and formerly 
the residence of the Princes of Chikuzen. Mr. Hind, 
the C.M.S. missionary in charge of the Fukuoka 
Mission, met us at the station, and took us at once 
in jinrikshas to his pretty Japanese house, where his 
young wife was waiting to welcome us. 

Their house was indeed delightfully Japanese, 
with paper-screen walls, windows, and doors, the 
drawing-room alone having glass windows on two 
sides. The rooms were not large, and much caution 
was therefore necessary during our toilet, or at meals, 
in order to avoid tumbling through a paper wall 
or door. However, we were duly careful, and I 
think all escaped without making even a small 
hole in one. The Japanese fit beautifully into such 
houses ; but it must be acknowledged that the 
general effect of English people in them is rather 
like that of an overwhelmingly large visitor in the 
doll's house of one's nursery days. 



C 259 ) 



CHAPTER XIV. 

FUKUOKA AND OYAMADA. 

Nov. 8. — Another lovely Sunday, and full of interest 
through the glimpses it gave us of the missionary 
work at Fukuoka. The Christian congregation num- 
bered a hundred persons, who had already built for 
themselves a large Mission Church, which they had 
named "Alpha and Omega." It would hold 300 
people, and had been consecrated by my brother 
during the previous May. We went down to this 
Church at 9 a.m., for Japanese Morning Prayer, 
during which two babies were baptized. My brother 
preached the sermon, which was followed by an 
English Celebration of Holy Communion. Every- 
thing was very well ordered in the Church, and we 
noticed the polite bows with which the church- 
warden gave out the notices and the people ac- 
knowledged them, a Japanese custom which is also 
observed by my brother and all the clergy in Japan 
before and after their sermons. During the after- 
noon about twenty of the leading Christians came 
to call on us. Mr. Hind had said we should be ready 

s 2 



260 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

at half-past two, but most of them arrived about 
one o'clock, and waited quietly in an outer room, 
contentedly smoking (both men and women ! ) until 
the appointed time. They then came into the 
drawing-room, and sat on the floor in such close 
rows that I think a large English hearthrug would 
have comfortably accommodated all twenty. There 
were such striking faces among them, and an 
earnest restful expression that is too often lacking 
in an ordinary Japanese. First in dignity sat the 
banker, carefully arrayed in foreign dress ! Next 
came an owner of coal mines and his pretty wife and 
baby, all in strict Japanese attire, from their kimonos 
to the tabi on their feet. Close beside them sat 
a blind newspaper seller — such a cheerful-faced man, 
who bowed his head on the floor whenever he specially 
approved any remark made by my father or brother. 
Besides these there were various women, the elder 
married ones with their teeth painted black, but the 
younger ones quite free from this ugly custom. My 
father gave them an address, interpreted by my 
brother, and then after tea and innumerable bows 
they left us, with the usual graceful Japanese fare- 
well, " Samara" — "If it must be so" — that is, "If 
we must part." 

During the evening my father and brother went 
down again to the Mission Church for Japanese 
Evensong, and then visited the preaching-house, an 



FUKUOKA AND OYAMADA. 2()1 

admirably-situated room open to the street, where 
numbers of non-Christians cluster round the door and 
listen to the addresses given by the missionaries. 
These preaching-houses seem an almost indispens- 
able addition to the buildings of any well- worked 
mission station. They are free from the interrup- 
tions of street preaching, and yet attract passers- 
by, and allow them to come and go in a way that 
would be impossible in a Mission Church. 

Nov. 9.— We left Fukuoka about 9.30 the following 
morning, en route for Kumamoto, one of the most 
important cities in Kiushiu. Our kind host, Mr. 
Hind, came with us as far as Oyamada, a Christian 
village about three or four hours' journey from 
Fukuoka, which my brother was specially anxious we 
should see while in Japan, as it afforded one of the 
most remarkable evidences of recent missionary work. 

It will be remembered that while in Kyoto we 
visited a large new Buddhist temple, which was being 
built in the place of one destroyed by fire on the 
same spot. Begging appeals on behalf of this temple 
were sent all over Japan, though most of the contri- 
butions which they elicited came from two only out 
of the eighty-four provinces of the Empire. Among 
other places an appeal reached Oyamada, the village 
that we intended to visit this day. The inhabitants 
sent a gift at once towards the new temple ; but 
when a second appeal followed soon afterwards, 



262 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

they evidently considered such a proceeding to be 
thoroughly grasping and unjust, and in their in- 
dignation against the Buddhist priests sent to 
Fukuoka for the English missionary to come and 
teach them about Christianity. The Rev. C. B. 
Hutchinson was then in charge of the mission station 
at Fukuoka, and he went over to Oyamada as soon 
as possible. This was in 1888 ; and by 1891, through 
his instructions and those of a valuable Japanese 
catechist, 150 out of the 180 inhabitants had been 
baptized, their heathen temple had been pulled down, 
and a Christian church built in its place. In fact, 
the whole village was practically Christian. 

The railway took us as far as a large city called 
Kurume, and after leaving our luggage at the 
station we started in jinrikshas for a ten -mile ride 
over the plains and up the hills to Oyamada. It 
was an interesting ride, as the country was thickly 
populated, and we were much struck by the carefully- 
cultivated farms and rice-fields, and the beautiful 
crimson-leaved wax trees. About 1 p.m. we climbed 
the last hill and entered the village. The hillside 
was thickly wooded with pine and maple trees, and 
the village street, a mere mountain path, was over- 
grown with moss and lovely ferns, among which 
we noticed the climbing fern, of which there are 
two specimens in Japan. The first building that 
greeted our eyes was the Church, quite a large 



FUKUOKA AND YAM AD A. 



263 



buildino-, with the catechist's house close beside it. 
Here we received a most dignified and courteous 
welcome from the catechist, Mr. Nakamura, and his 
wife (Mary San), a former pupil of Mrs. Groodall's 




SILK-SPINNING. 



school at Nagasaki. She could speak English beauti- 
fully, and yet had kept all her pretty Japanese 
manners. 

They were surrounded by their children, Grace, 
Mary, and Edith — two small girls and a baby — who 



264 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

were all dressed in the gayest of scarlet costumes. 
After removing our shoes we went with them into the 
house and up the ladder-like stairs to the reception- 
room, which boasted a table and chairs, but was other- 
wise quite Japanese. Here we had our lunch, and 
meanwhile could see and hear a man vigorously 
beating a big gong, evidently a relic of the former 
heathen temple, in order to announce our arrival to 
the village. The people soon came thronging round 
the house and Church, and by three o'clock probably 
every Christian in Oyamada had arrived in order to 
see us, and take part in a service which had been 
announced for that hour. It was a singularly in- 
teresting service, and made us full of hope for the 
future of Christianity in Japan. The Church itself 
had been almost entirely built by the people, some 
of them who could not give money having brought 
wood, or helped in the actual building. Three 
years ago every Japanese present, except Mr. and 
Mrs. Nakamura, had been heathen ; now they joined 
with quiet earnestness and reverence in our Litany 
and some hymns, and then listened to a sermon from 
my brother He spoke to them from the steps of the 
Holy Table, and then confirmed one of their number, 
a fine young man, probably one of the farm labourers. 
It all seemed so natural, and yet so strange, when we 
remembered the great heathen city Kurume, only 
ten miles off, and the many heathen viHages through 



FUKUOEA AND OYAMADA. 265 

which we had passed ; and yet here was this one 
village of Oyamada won to our Faith by very simple 
quiet means, and in so short a time. It was indeed 
a valuable example of what could be done by out- 
station work — that is, work started by an English 
Mission having its centre in a large city. Such a 
Mission if well manned is able to send out missionaries 
from time to time on evangelistic tours in the neigh- 
bouring villages, who, after winning a certain number 
of converts, can entrust them to the care of a native 
catechist until the place is ready for a Japanese 
clergyman in charge. Could the number of these 
strong missionary centres in Japan be multiplied, 
it can scarcely be doubted that the result would be 
most remarkable. 

But what was the actual state of the case as brought 
before us during our visit to the country in 1891 ? 
In Tokyo, Osaka, Kobe, Fukuoka, and other places 
we found hopeful central missions, but all in charge 
of them were obliged to sorrowfully acknowledge that 
they had not means or missionaries to overtake their 
own work, and that if out-station work had been 
attempted, it had generally been at the sacrifice of 
still more pressing work in the centre, or during the 
holidays of the missionaries. 

The general opinion seemed to be that when both 
methods cannot be adopted in one place it is much 
better to develop work in the centre rather than have 



266 JAPAN AS WE SA W IT. 

a weak extended line of out- stations. But why 
cannot both be adopted in every great centre of popu- 
lation in Japan ? Why should not each great centre 
have a strong body of married missionaries such as 
we saw at Osaka, and community-missions like 
S. Andrew's and S. Hilda's Missions at Tokyo, besides 
educational establishments to train the children in 
Christianity, and Divinity Schools for the catechists 
and clergy ? The answer is too easily given. 

The Church in England and America has not 
realised the laborious nature of the work in Japan, 
and the consequent self-sacrifice and effort that will 
be necessary if it is to be successfully undertaken. 
We have sent out a few missionaries, and have given 
them but limited support. Then, because through 
their zeal, and the extraordinary crisis in religious 
matters in Japan, remarkable results have been 
obtained, we say quietly, " Delightful people the 
Japanese ; so open to Christianity ! We shall see 
them a Christian nation in our lifetime. " But in 
our enthusiasm over the people, and our appreciation 
of the converts, we wholly forget the millions yet 
untouched, and who never will be touched until we 
rouse ourselves to the actual facts of the case. The 
Church of Rome meanwhile has noted the oppor- 
tunity, and is sending out Bishops, Sisters of Mercy, 
first-rate educationalists to Japan, in order to try 
and repeat the work of Xavier. The American non- 



FUKUOKA AND YAM AD A. 267 

Episcopalians have grudged neither men nor money 
in order to found missionary institutions in the most 
important centres of Japan. Let us emulate their 
devotion and avoid their errors. Let us send out 
those who could only be spared with real difficulty 
from home, and who would thus be fit pioneers 
and founders of the national Church of this great 
people. We often asked when in Japan about works 
of art in the ancient temples and palaces, " Who 
carved this design, and painted that screen or 
panel ? " and were met with the answer, " Nobody 
knows ; the artist's name is forgotten ; in the old 
days they would give their life to one object, and be 
content to die unknown." Such words may accu- 
rately describe what the building-up of the Church 
of such a nation should be ; not only the life-long 
dedication of the noblest artists, and of their most 
perfect work towards the end in view, but the reward 
of the artists that their work should contribute to 
the glory of the building as a whole, whether their 
names were handed down to posterity or not. 

But to return to our visit to Oyamada. After 
service about fifty-two of the Christians came into the 
catechist's house in order to partake of a feast of 
tea and cakes, which my brother had provided for 
them. The screens had been taken down, so the 
lower floor of the house was turned into one large 
room. The guests sat close to the walls, and a 



26S JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

table only a few inches high was put before each, 
covered with pale pink, green, and brown cakes, 
and sweets of truly " high art" shades, while the pur- 
veyor of the feast and his assistants walked about 
and constantly replenished the cups of tea. 

We sat on the floor also, and my father gave an 
address, in which he told them of his warm interest 
in Oyamada, and of his hopes that the remaining 
heathen in the village would soon be brought to 
the Faith. They listened earnestly to his words, 
and seemed very sorry when we had to leave them, 
soon after 5 o'clock, in order to catch the train 
at Kurume for Kumamoto. They all came out of 
the catechist's house and stood on the steps of his 
garden to see us start, bowing their farewells until 
a turn in the road hid them from our sight. 

Our jinriksha men ran well, and it did not seem 
long before we saw the lights of Kurume. It is a 
large city, and as we rushed through its streets we 
could look in at the brightly lighted shops and houses, 
and I noticed that in each there was the household 
shrine, bearing witness to the widespread heathenism 
of the city. I inquired afterwards more particularly 
about these household shrines (Kamidana), and found 
that they would, as a rule, have three divisions, each 
containing a representation in thin oil-paper (or 
Fuda) of some deity. The most popular of these 
deities are ( 1 ) : Ten Shq Dai Jinzu (the superior 



FUKUOKA AND YAM ADA. 2(39 

deity, or Sun-Goddess) ; (2) : The God of the district 
to whom the family is specially devoted (this deity is 
often the deified Emperor Ojin) ; (3): The gods of 
fortune. The household shrine being devoted to- 
Shinto worship, ought, strictly speaking, to contain 
no idols — only these Fuda, or cards of thin oil- 
paper. But, as in Shinto temples, Buddhist deities in 
the form of idols are constantly introduced into them,, 
and in an inner part of the house another shrine, 
wholly devoted to Buddhist deities, will often he 
found. 

Kamidana, or the " Divine shelf," are very popu- 
lar with shop-keepers, who, as we saw at Kurume 
that night, will put them in a prominent position, 
partly as a defence against possible evil, and partly 
because by its lighted candles a shrine will im- 
prove the look of the shop. 

Besides the Fuda of the deities, they will, as a rule, 
contain offerings to them of sake (spirits) ; leaves of 
an evergreen tree peculiarly sacred to Shinto, called 
Sakaki, and rice bread, which in Shinto worship 
represents human flesh, and is thus the Shinto 
sacrifice. 

Buddhist shrines are quite distinct from Kami- 
dana, and are known as Butsudan. They are 
large, and highly gilded, and may thus be easily 
distinguished from those devoted to Shinto worship, 
which are made of unpainted white wood. They 



270 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

will contain images of Amida-Buddha, and also of 
Kwannon, the Goddess of Mercy. Amida-Buddha 
is apparently regarded by the Japanese as " the 
Saviour," of whom Shaka Muni, or Gautama Buddha, 
is the Incarnation, the two being worshipped as 
distinct persons. 

It was quite dark when we entered the streets of 
Kurume, and our men stopped to light their paper 
lanterns, as they are liable to be fined if they run 
a jinriksha unlighted after dark. My brother made 
them stop for a few minutes at a confectioner's 
.shop, where we could buy some sponge-cakes for 
our journey. Japanese sponge-cake, or Caster a, is 
very good, and, as its name denotes, is a survival 
of Spanish influence in Japan during the 16th 
century, when Castilians introduced it into the 
country, and, owing to the absence of an L in the 
Japanese alphabet, Castile was soon corrupted to 
u Castera." It is made in large fiat wedges, and we 
were much amused when my brother came out of 
the shop with a supply about half a yard long for 
our journey. 

At the station we found a police inspector in 
•charge, who, after helping us to find our luggage, 
ushered us into the waiting-room. He was a very 
courteous man, evidently a Samurai, one of the 
warrior class j many of whom lost nearly everything 
at the Kevolution, and were thankful to enter the 



FUKUOKA AND YAM AD A. 271 

ranks of the army or police force. But we were much 
amused, and very grateful, when, soon after he had 
settled us in the waiting-room, he reappeared, accom- 
panied by a maid who carried a dainty tray of tea 
and cakes, which he offered us with many bows, after 
delicately tasting the tea to make sure that it was 
good. We felt that we were in Japan, indeed, for an 
English police inspector might conceivably have 
managed the tea, but never the bows. 

We left Kurume about 8 p.m., and arrived at 
Kumamoto three hours later. Mr. Brandram, the 
C.M.S. missionary, met us at the station, and my 
father and brother and Mrs. Bickersteth stayed with 
him and Mrs. Brandram while in Kumamoto. I mean- 
while was the guest of Miss Eiddell and Miss Nott, 
two ladies who had been recently sent out by the 
Church Missionary Society to help in the work of the 
Kumamoto Mission. All our friends lived in Japanese 
houses ; but they had furnished them in foreign 
ashion, and the rooms looked very home-like that 
night after our long day's journey from Fukuoka. 



272 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 



CHAPTER XV. 

KUMAMOTO AND ASO SAN. 

Nov. 10. — Kumamoto is a large city, with 53,000 
inhabitants, and one of the finest castles of old Japan. 
This castle used to boast sixteen towers, and was built 
in the 16th century by a famous general called Kato 
Kyomasa, whose work we had already seen in the 
keep at Nagoya. But only one of the towers and 
the ancient ramparts and gateway are now left, the 
rest of the castle being destroyed in the Satsuma 
rebellion against the present Government in 1877. 
The first morning after we arrived at Kumamoto the 
weather was too wet to allow of any sight-seeing, but 
in the afternoon it cleared up, and we soon made 
our way to the castle, and had a very interesting time 
there. We climbed to the top of the old tower, from 
which we had an extensive view of the surrounding 
country, and then walked round the ramparts, which 
in some places bore unmistakable marks of the great 
earthquake in 1889, and in others were spattered 
with lead from bullets fired in the siege of 1877, 
Kato Kyomasa was not only a great general, but a 



KUMAMOTO AND ASO SAN. 273 

powerful ruler, and the results of his work may be 
seen in many places in and near Kumamoto. The 
roads in the country immediately surrounding the 
city were sunk deep in the rice-fields, to enable him 
to send secret parties of soldiers from his castle, 
and surprise any approaching enemy. In the neigh- 
bouring hills he had erected some noble viaducts, 
which had turned a barren country into a peculiarly 
fertile one. But he was evidently utterly un- 
scrupulous in the means that he employed to carry 
out his various schemes, and his cruelty knew no 
bounds. One legend about him relates that, when 
building the castle, he employed a giant to carry 
up and place in position some of its enormous 
stones, and a mill-stone still lies in the courtyard 
which we were told this giant had carried with ease, 
putting his neck through a hole in the middle of it. 
But when the castle was just finished, the giant made 
some unfortunate remark as to who should hereafter 
live in it. The jealousy of his lord was roused, and 
he ordered the man to go down a deep well, 
and then had great stones thrown into it to crush 
him. He was, therefore, scarcely the kind of man 
that one would expect the Buddhists to deify after 
his death, yet this is what had happened, and his 
temple on the outskirts of Kumamoto is one of the 
most popular in South Japan. 

Mr. Brandram knew the commandant of the castle, 

T 



274 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

so we called at the officers' quarters. The command- 
ant was away from home, but the officer in charge 
received us with great courtesy, and by his orders we 
were ushered into the council room, and small cups 
of coffee, a novel and comparatively rare luxury in 
Japan, were served to us. 

That evening we all went down to the Mission 
Church, and my father preached to a large and 
attentive congregation of the converts. The Mission 
had at first made extremely rapid progress, and the 
people had built their own church, partly by help 
from outside, but mostly by their own exertions. 
Women had given the proceeds of their knitting, and 
a farmer a share in the profits of his poultry-yard, 
and a hotel-keeper a percentage on his till. But 
the inhabitants of the island of Kiushiu, of which 
Kumamoto is one of the largest cities, are a peculiarly 
proud, independent race. Anybody who has studied 
recent Japanese politics will know that, from the days 
of the Satsuma rebellion in 1877 to the latest election 
riots, the inhabitants of Kiushiu have been noted for 
a strong conservatism that has resented the enlight- 
ened policy of the present Government, and has clung, 
with an almost dogged devotion, to the ways of old 
Japan. The work of a foreign Mission among such 
a people is one of peculiar delicacy, and we were 
scarcely surprised to hear that the first fervour of the 
people of Kumamoto had been followed by an out- 



KUMAMOTO AND ASO SAN. 



275 



break of independence as regards Church matters, 
which had resulted in a serious check to the growth 
of the congregation. But the check promises to be a 
passing one, and all hope that, with wise manage- 
ment, the marked Japanese characteristic of a due 




A MERCHANT IX THE OLD DAYS OF JAPAN. 

respect for law and order will prevail at Kumamoto 
as in other parts of Japan. 

Certainly nothing appeared to mar the warmth of 
their reception to us, and after a bright service in the 
Church, we all adjourned to the schoolroom, where 

T 2 



276 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

my father responded to a speech of welcome made by 
one of the leading members of the congregation. A 
very grand feast followed, not only tea, cakes, and 
sweets for every guest, but three bright yellow 
persimmons as well, a persimmon being a Japanese 
fruit the size of an apple, but tasting like a plum. 
We all sat on the floor, as usual, and at every polite 
remark the heads of the audience bent forward, and 
reminded me vividly of the effect produced by 
the wind as it passes over a field of wheat. We 
knew it was strict Japanese etiquette to take away 
any food not consumed at the time, and a piece of 
paper was provided for the purpose. But our portions 
that night were very large and sticky, and my hostess, 
Miss Riddell, thought that her cook might safely 
bring home what we had left in one parcel. But 
she had evidently reckoned without our hosts in 
the matter. Just as I had settled myself in my 
jinriksha, a delightfully polite Japanese came, with 
many bows, and put my rejected sweets in my lap. 
They were of all sizes and shapes, and I had an 
exciting ride home trying to prevent one sticky pos- 
session after another from making its escape into the 
road. 

Nov. 11. — My father and brother and Mr. Brand- 
ram left Kumamoto early the next morning for 
an expedition to the celebrated volcano, Aso San. 
It was considered rather difficult for ladies, so 



KUMAMOTO AND ASO SAN. 277 

Mrs. Bickersteth and I stayed in Kumamoto until 
their return. 

The weather was perfection, and they started at 
8 a.m. in three jinrikshas. Their road for nearly 
twenty miles led through beautiful scenery ; and, 
though heavy at first with the recent rain, it im- 
proved every hour with the glorious sunshine. At 
last it became too rough for jinrikshas, and they rode 
on ponies up a romantic mountain pass, which after 
two hours brought them to a Japanese inn at a 
village called Taratama. It was a very comfortable 
inn, with hot (natural) sulphur baths, the strong fumes 
of which pervaded the air. Mr. Brandram prepared 
a capital supper, and the party were very glad to 
cluster round the charcoal hibachi (brazier), as, though 
a brilliant moonlight night, the air at that elevation 
was very cold. At 7 a.m. the next morning they 
started for the volcano. Two ponies had been ordered 
for riding and to carry their bags ; but when the 
pair of animals arrived, one proved to be a small 
cow. She was quite tame, but very slow ; so they 
loaded her with the luggage, and told the owner to 
meet them at the other side of the mountain, which 
he did that afternoon with perfect faithfulness. My 
father writes in his diary : "It was really a most 
glorious sight, the pass clothed with maples and other 
trees, in all their autumn colours, and the sun touching 
point after point. Sometimes I would ride, sometimes 



278 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

not ; but E. and Mr. Brandram walked all the way. 
We reached the summit about 10 o'clock. It was 
very solemnising, the continuous roar, like that of 
the ocean, as the sulphur and smoke and steam were 
poured forth. The mouth of the crater is perhaps a 
mile long and three-quarters of a mile broad, and, 
they say, quite dwarfs that of Vesuvius. One felt 
what mighty occult forces were at work within the 
earth of which we know so little. We came down to 
a little tea-house, near which they are building a 
small wooden temple to Buddha, instead of some six 
or seven which formerly stood there, and on the 
way down passed a small statue of Buddha, who is 
apparently considered to be warder of the volcano. 
We came down a most precipitous path (to ride was 
impossible) to a most active sulphurous geyser, which 
only broke out a few years ago from the side of the 
mountain. The columns of steam from this and from 
the great crater are distinctly visible at Kumamoto, 
twenty-five miles off. We walked on to the place 
where we had appointed our jinriksha men to meet 
us ; and there they were, great hearty fellows, laugh- 
ing and chattering in the highest spirits at the 
prospect of their run home. They ran the first 
fifteen miles in two hours ten minutes, only pausing 
once to rinse their mouths with water and drink a few 
mouthfuls. Then we stopped twenty minutes for tea, 
and they ran the last five miles in about forty 



KUMAMOTO AND ASO SAN. 281 

minutes, shouting most of the way, and coming in 
at the top of their speed, and not in the least breath- 
less or tired." 

Truly the jinriksha runners of Japan are a wonder- 
ful race. All the heavy work comes on their legs 
and chests, which are splendidly developed ; but 
their arms are, as a rule, very thin and small. We 
were told there were no less than 30,000 of them in 
Tokyo alone ; and the trade seems a popular one all 
over the country. One man, a Christian convert, 
pulled my brother in a jinriksha for about thirty 
miles, and when asked if he were tired, said, "No, 
by the grace of God I am never tired," and went on 
cheerfully for another ten miles. When running with 
a party they almost invariably insist on following 
one behind the other, the heaviest person being put 
first, so as to regulate the speed, with due regard to 
the strength of the men. But one day when we 
were a party of five, journeying along a broad high- 
road, our men suddenly ran abreast of each other, 
laughing and joking in the most comical fashion, 
though the road led up a long, heavy hill. 

But to return to Kumamoto. While my father 
and brother were at Aso San, Mrs. Bickersteth 
and I were seeing a good deal of life in a pro- 
vincial city. My hostesses had only recently arrived 
from England, so they were unable to teach in 
Japanese ; but they had opened two classes for 



282 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

teaching English to young men and girls, and by this 
means had secured several pupils for a Sunday after- 
noon Bible-class. I was present at the English class 
for young men, and much admired the determina- 
tion with which they attacked our difficult language. 
One pupil had been so eager to learn that he had 
offered to come and board with my hostesses, adding 
that "he would arrange for the keeping of his body," 
i.e. for his daily food. 

In Kiushiu European thought and modes of ex- 
pression have evidently penetrated to a much less 
degree than in the Main Island. For instance, Mr. 
Brandram told us that a local paper had thus de- 
scribed my father (in Japanese) : " Mr. Exeter, Bishop 
of Cambridge, accompanied by Mrs. Devonshire, has 
come to Japan" — a truly delightful mixture of his 
diocese, University, wife, and county. A Japanese 
gentleman, who gave lessons to my hostesses, fur- 
nished me with another interesting example of the 
ignorance of modern life and thought even among 
people of good position in the city. I had bought a 
little tea-pot and a set of cups in a curio-shop, and 
wished very much to know if they were genuine 
specimens of old china. This gentleman being a 
connoisseur, he kindly promised that he would come 
and decide the knotty point for me. He duly 
arrived late one evening ; and when we had got 
through our preliminary bows, told Miss Eiddell 



KUMAMOTO AND ASO SAN. 283 

that he wished to make me a speech. Of course I 
consented at once ; and, interpreted by my friends, he 
made me a formal address, saying that though I had 
come to Japan, I had probably seen nothing of interest 
in the country. I replied with many compliments on 
the beauty and interest of each place we had visited, 
and then he said, like the old rhyme, "And now my 
speech is done," and proceeded to critically examine 
the china. Having held it in every possible position, 
and read the marks of the maker, he pronounced that 
it was a hundred years old, and well made ; the 
first being proved by the delicacy of the colouring — 
modern work would not be so good — and the second 
by the fact that the lid of the tea-pot, if reversed, 
could be neatly fitted between the spout and handle. 
Then we began to talk about the castle, and at 
once his strong conservatism disclosed itself. A 
remark made by one of us treated the story of 
the giant builder and his millstone as a legend. 
His sensitive pride was roused in a moment. He 
rose from his seat, his face working with emotion. 
" Of course it was true ; the man was a giant, as big 
as the Bishop." But with due respect for my brother's 
height (more than six feet), I fear even this telling 
argument failed to convince me of the truth of the 
legend ; and it was strange to compare this man, a 
gentleman of good position in Kumamoto, with the 
sharp-witted, essentially modern barrister who had 



284 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

given the Japanese dinner-party in our honour at 
Tokyo. 

Yet the new thought and life are penetrating in 
every direction. I happened to ask my brother one 
day when we were travelling through a quiet country 
district whether this was not really " Old Japan," for 
not a trace of the new foreign influence seemed to 
be visible anywhere. His only reply was to point 
out a man who was diligently reading a newspaper 
in a shop, and to say, " That would have been im- 
possible in the old days." My friend's simple faith 
in the giant and his millstone will be scorned by 
the next generation in Kiushiu as it already is in 
Tokyo and in all the great cities of the Main Island. 
The question, therefore, cannot fail to present itself 
to anyone who looks below the surface of modern 
Japanese society, "What is to take the place of the 
old imperfect faith and reverence when these have 
been shattered by the revelations of modern science, 
unless some attempt is made to give to the people 
as a whole an insight into the true faith and hope of 
Christendom ? " 

The following afternoon my hostesses took me to see 
the Buddhist temple beyond the city walls which had 
been dedicated to Kato Ky omasa, the great lord of 
the castle. On our way we passed through a leper 
village, and numbers of the poor creatures stood by 
the roadside, begging for alms and showing their 



KUMAMOTO AND ASO SAN 285 

sores. They had probably chosen that spot because 
the temple was a famous one, and attracted many 
hundreds of pilgrims. Just outside its precincts 
we left our jinrikshas and walked through a street 
of shops, in which small shrines with figures of 
Kyomasa, and Buddhist rosaries could be bought, 
varying from a few sen (halfpence) in price, to many 
dollars. We then climbed a long flight of steps to 
the temple itself, lepers standing or sitting on each side 
in the worst stages of the disease. As we approached 
the central shrine we noticed that many of them 
were engaged apparently in the most earnest devotion. 
One boy was shaking his head from side to side as 
he prayed, and my friends told me he was always 
doing this whenever they visited the temple. Just 
behind the image of Kyomasa a woman was rocking 
backwards and forwards, also without any cessation, 
holding, meanwhile, a miserable-looking baby in her 
arms. Close under the building one poor old woman 
had fallen asleep in her misery, as if she felt the very 
neighbourhood of the shrine could help her. In the 
courtyard a man ran up and; down muttering his 
prayers and apparently afraid of breaking some vow 
if he stopped for a moment. It was a piteous sight ; 
and the temple being a stronghold of Buddhism, it 
would be very difficult to start any direct missionary 
work among the lepers. But since our return to Eng- 
land we have heard that Miss Eiddell and Miss Nott 



286 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

are very eager to attempt a small hospital for them ; 
and this might succeed where other methods would 
fail. As it is, the mere existence of such a temple 
in Japan made us long for the days when powerful 
Christian influence in the land will render it an 
impossibility, and meanwhile we could only trust that 
the groanings of those poor lepers did reach to 
heaven, though the true God was so utterly unknown 
to them. 

While at Kumamoto my father wrote the following 
letter to the editor of the Times, which was inserted 
in its Christmas Day issue : — 

" Sir, — As you gave a short paragraph in your 
Ecclesiastical Intelligence last July in prospect of my 
visit to the field of my son's labours, the Bishop of 
the Church of England in Japan, it may interest your 
readers to learn my impressions after a few weeks' 
sojourn in this land upon which the Gospel is 
dawning. 

"It is impossible to help being attracted by the 
Japanese. Their quiet order and submission to 
authority, their instinctive courtesy, their bright 
smile and merry laughter, their carefully-tended 
homesteads and gardens, their agricultural industry, 
which verifies the saying, ' In Japan crops follow 
each other so quickly the soil has no time to grow 
weeds ; ' their wonderful imitative talent, which 
always attempts to improve on that it copies, and not 



KUMAMOTO AND ASO SAN ' 287 

seldom succeeds ; the tenderness of parents and the 
happiness of little children, their passion for educa- 
tion and their mental powers — these things must 
strike every stranger. They are emphatically a 
people of bright hope — eue\7riSe9, as Thucydides says 
of the Athenians. While, at the same time, if any 
one dreams that Shintoism or Buddhism can produce 
the same fruit as Christianity, it only needs to learn 
what lies beneath the surface of society here for the 
illusion to pass away like a dream. Home is not to 
them what home is to us. The boys, so happy in early 
childhood, are too often petted and spoiled ; they are 
not taught to obey ; they bully each other and their 
parents. The women, graceful and gracious as they 
are in their youth, grow old prematurely. The men 
who have only eight, or at most ten, festival days of 
rest in the year, show the need of that one-day -in- 
seven Sabbath which was made for man ; they are not 
a long-lived race. But there are worse evils : the 
grossest superstition or blind materialism, concubin- 
age and impurity, fickleness and inconstancy, though 
with noble and notable exceptions, are widely preva- 
lent. Christianity alone can cope with the vices and 
foster the virtues of this great nation of more than 
40,000,000 souls. But no Christian man can note their 
many fascinating characteristics without exclaiming, 
Quoniam talis es, utinam noster esses. It is recorded 
of St. Bernard that his first question to his missioners, 



288 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

when they returned from their missions, always was, 
' Could you love those to whom you were sent ? ' 
It is no hard task to love the Japanese. 

" I have received the heartiest welcome from the 
converts at Tokyo, Nagoya, Osaka, Fukuyama, Kobe, 
Kumamoto, and other places. Of their own accord 
they generally organised receptions, and, having read 
me an address which was interpreted by the mission- 
ary, catechist, or school-master, they would listen with 
evidently the keenest interest to my assurances of the 
deep sympathy which England cherished for those 
who had embraced or were embracing the faith in this 
far-off land. A few sentences from the address I 
received at Kobe, a translation of which was placed in 
my hands, will tell the import of others : — 

" ' May we not look upon this your crossing so many 
leagues of sea and land to visit our country as an 
advance signal of God's purpose soon to spread the 
knowledge of His way throughout our land ? The 
town of Kobe in which we live, as the passage-way of 
traffic and commerce, day by day grows in business, 
and month by month the population increases, so that 
we are persuaded it will become a place of utmost 
importance. On this account many false religions of 
various kinds have exerted their energies here. On 
the other hand, in our own holy Church the clergy 
who preach the will of God are but one or two, and 
this has been a cause of constant grief to us. And 



EUMAMOTO AND ASO SAN. 289 

we venture to beg that when your Lordship returns 
to England you will let these facts be known to our 
brothers and sisters there, that they may join with us 
in looking up to God and praying Him of His mercy 
to send forth other suitable workers hither.' 

" These words touch on some of the gravest diffi- 
culties which beset the missionary of the Cross here. 
The Protean forms of unbelief and misbelief which have 
troubled the Church of God in England and Europe, 
all find their counterpart in Japan. Buddhism has 
now only a feeble hold on the educated classes here, 
and our missionaries are seldom harassed by open 
hostility. If it breaks forth it soon subsides. At 
Nagoya, where I spent three days shortly before the 
late destructive earthquake, I addressed one Sunday 
evening in the Mission-hall a crowded congregation, 
mainly consisting of non-Christians, and among the 
audience was the ring-leader of opponents who six 
months ago had threatened to stone the missionary 
and burn the hall : that night he and his wife sat 
quietly listening to the message of salvation. The 
contest now lies between Christianity and infidelity. 
Of sceptics the name is legion. And hence the 
urgent necessity that our missionaries should be men 
of culture, and able to expose the hollow pretensions 
of agnosticism. And I gladly bear witness, so far as 
a passing visitor's judgment is of value, to the ex- 
ceptional power of the band of men whom England's 



290 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

Church has sent forth, and is sending forth, in in- 
creasing numbers to this mission-field. 

"When my son came here as Bishop in 1886 there 
were only 15 ordained clergymen of our Church (14 
English and 1 Japanese) in his vast diocese ; there 
are now 46 (35 Europeans and 11 Japanese) clergy- 
men. There were then 5 missionary ladies ; there 
are now 30. Of these 76 labourers the Church 
Missionary Society has sent forth 38, the Gospel 
Propagation Society four, the Canadian Church three, 
and some have come entirely at their own cost. The 
Bishopric is supported equally by the two sister 
societies (S.P.G. and C.M.S.). Singular wisdom 
seems to me to have been vouchsafed to those who 
have directed the missionary work here in training 
labourers for the different departments of their great 
embassy, and in establishing germinal institutions 
which are striking deep root in the soil. It is not 
only evangelists who are needed (how sore the need is 
of simple heralds of the Gospel only an eye-witness 
can feel) ; but trained shepherds and skilled spiritual 
workmen and wise leaders are needed in every great 
city. The S. Andrew's and S. Hilda's Institutes at 
Tokio, which are communities with no monastic vows, 
are doing a great and good work. These are mainly 
supported by S. Paul's Guild, which now numbers 
2,000 members in England. Then there are the 
Divinity Schools and High-Class Schools for Boys, 



KUMAMOTO AND ASO SAN. 291 

Homes for Training Bible-women and Nurses, and many 
other agencies. And if so great an advance has been 
made, and so many converts gathered in during the 
last few years, when most of the labourers have had 
to learn the language and the use of their tools, it is 
not, I hope, over-sanguine to anticipate that during 
the next decade the seed sown will bring forth — some 
thirty-, some sixty-, and some a hundred-fold. 

" I have spoken only of the mission work of the 
Church of England here. The American Episcopal 
Church was long before us in the field. The two 
missions are labouring together in happiest inter- 
communion, and hold a united synod of the Nippon 
set Kokwai, ' the Church in Japan,' once in two 
years. Also the American Nonconformist missionaries 
and teachers are here in far greater numbers than 
the Episcopalians. We thank God for their holy zeal 
and labour of love. But the Episcopal Churches of 
England and America have increased five-fold during 
the last few years. There is that in their reverent 
ritual which seems especially suited to commend itself 
to the order-loving Japanese ; and their liturgies and 
creeds are simply priceless amid the shifting currents 
of religious thought which are swaying the mind of 
Japan at this crisis. 

" I had often heard it said before I came here that, 
if Christendom rose in her might, Japan would be won 
for Christ in the next ten years. And no doubt a 

u 2 



292 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

great door and effectual is opened here. But let no 
one think that this vast Empire is to be won without 
our taking up the cross and following the evangelists 
of former ages as they followed Christ. Of the forty 
millions in Japan not more than one in 400 has yet 
been baptized. There are many large towns and 
thousands of villages utterly untouched by Christianity 
at present. My son pleads for fifty more labourers 
(men and women) from England. Is it too much to 
hope that our Church will supply them during the 
next three years ? If my life is spared, I will gladly 
bear the cost of one more European labourer as a 
thank-offering for what my eyes have seen and my 
ears have heard of the triumphs of the Gospel here. 
And I hope, on my return — which, please God, will be 
almost as soon as you receive this letter — to plead 
with some willing hearts who will respond to the cry 
from our brethren here — ' Come over and help us,' 
and with many others who, unable themselves to go, 
will sustain the labourers sent forth. Seldom in the 
history of the Church has there been a prospect of a 
larger harvest : and they who sow and they who reap 
will rejoice together. 

"E. H. Exon." 



( 293 ) 



CHAPTER XVI. 

JAPANESE FUNERALS. 

While in Kumamoto we met a large funeral, which, 
from information given me afterwards by the Rev. J. 
Imai Toshimichi, was evidently a Shinto one. Shinto 
rites of burial are, he says, of quite recent origin, 
though the worshippers claim that they are a revival 
of ancient usages as practised before the introduction 
of Buddhism into Japan. For many centuries the 
Buddhist priests ruled supreme in all rites of burial, 
and much of their influence may be traced to this 
supremacy. But during recent years an edict passed 
by the Japanese Government took away the privilege 
from them, and thus dealt a tremendous blow at 
their influence over the people. Earnest followers of 
Shinto, of whom, since the reaction in favour of things 
Japanese at the time of the Revolution, there are a 
large number in Japan, revived or instituted Shinto 
rites of burial. Converts to Christianity were also 
free to bury their dead according to the rites of 
the Christian faith. Mr. Imai said that a Shinto 
funeral is conducted in the following manner. On 



294 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

the death of any member of a family, the relations 
send for a Kannushi, or Shinto priest, and acquaint 
him with the address of the house, the date and hour 
of burial, the cemetery, etc. They also say whether 
the funeral will be " Jo-to" " Chu-to" or " Ka-to;" 
that is, first-, second-, or third-class in grandeur. 

To describe a middle-class funeral. The day having 
come, the Kannushi (priest) will prepare all things 
according to the class of rite agreed upon. Many 
other priests will be in attendance as well as the one 
who conducts the service. Some of them will be on 
horseback, and all will be dressed in their official 
robes. A procession is formed in the following order : 
1. Flowers sent by friends of the deceased. 2. Banners 
of five different colours — blue, yellow, red, white and 
black. 3. The priests on horseback and in carriages. 
4. Banners bearing the name and title of the de- 
ceased. 5. The coffin. 6. The son of the deceased 
follows barefooted. 7. The other relations, all dressed 
in white. 8. Priests. 9. Friends in carriages. 
10. Extra flowers, tables, etc. 

A service is held in the house before the coffin is 
carried out, and includes a Norito, or prayer, in 
ancient Japanese style. The coffin is made of white 
wood, and an unpainted staff, cut from the sacred 
Sakaki tree, is carried by the priest, ornamented 
with white paper, white being always used for 
mourning in Japan. The priest bows three times 



JAPANESE FUNERALS. 295 

to the coffin before and after reading the Norito, and 
the procession then starts for the graveyard. The 
coffin is buried at once, and a pole with the name of 
the deceased is placed upon the grave, and also a small 
table with offerings of water, wine, rice, etc., the flowers 
being arranged all round the tomb. The chief priest 
then stands before the tomb with a bunch of Sakaki 
(evergreen) in his hands, which are clasped together 
on his breast. He bows three times, puts the branch 
on the table, reads a prayer, and recites a life of the 
deceased. He then takes up the branch once more, 
bows three times, and replaces it on the table, retir- 
ing a few steps, in order to allow the nearest relations 
and all the other people who have attended the funeral 
to follow his example. This concludes the ceremony 
at the grave, and the friends disperse after they 
have been offered tea and cake, generally at a neigh- 
bouring tea-house. 

The family and near relations, however, accompanied 
by the priests, return to the house of mourning, and 
there the Kannusld conducts a further service. A small 
table is arranged with a few offerings upon it, and the 
name of the deceased in its centre. Another Norito 
(prayer) is read, which begs for pardon from the 
spirit of the deceased for the imperfections of the 
funeral, and expresses grief for his departure, with 
prayer that he will become the guardian spirit of the 
family. Finally, the Kannusld formally purifies all ' 



296 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

who have attended the funeral, and this completes 
the ceremony. In some cases, a gathering of friends 
would be held at night, who would try and cheer the 
relations of the dead after their loss ; but this would 
depend upon the wishes of the family. The number 
ten is closely connected with the dead, and on the 
tenth, twentieth and thirtieth days, various cere- 
monies are observed. On the tenth day, the priest 
arrives at the house of the deceased, and after 
arranging a small altar with offerings, chiefly of 
vegetables and fruits, he says a prayer by which the 
spirit of the dead is made to indwell in a mirror, 
which hereafter is treated as his memorial and 
dwelling-place. The friends then give a festival 
dinner, for the characteristic idea of a Shinto funeral is 
that of rejoicing. The departed is not dead, but his 
spirit has " become God," and he has joined all his 
great and good ancestors, and shares with them in the 
Divine dignity. Not only are the tenth, twentieth, 
and thirtieth days observed in his honour, but also 
the corresponding years, so that a person may be 
commemorated three hundred years and more subse- 
quent to his decease. As Mr. Imai says, there is 
something very striking in the entire simplicity of a 
Shinto funeral, and in the manner in which it suggests 
the eternal existence of souls, though it is entirely 
without the belief, " I believe in the resurrection of 
the body." 



JAPANESE FUNERALS. 297 

Buddhist funerals, on the other hand, are very 
elaborate, and furnish a strange contrast to those 
of Shinto. The " Zen-shu " sect, whose followers be- 
lieve in annihilation, forms the solitary exception 
to this rule. To them, existence is a dream ; death, 
the destruction of being, is a return to reality, and 
funeral rites are a matter of utter indifference. One 
of the most famous priests of this sect wrote some 
poetry, which Mr. Imai tells me well illustrates its 
views. He translates it thus : — 

" Burn me not, nor bury me if I die, 
But throw these remains of mine 
Among weeds of the field, and let them lie 
To feed dogs in hunger pining." 

Such an idea of burial could scarcely be widely 
popular, and the rites of other sects are therefore 
widely used in Japan. To take an example, again, 
from the middle class of funeral. 

The coffin having been procured, the body is 
washed in warm water, and dressed in white, the 
head being cleanly shaved, and a small coin 
(Shimon sen) put in its mouth to pay the ferry 
across the Sandzu river. A table covered with 
white linen is placed near the coffin, in order to 
receive the incense and other offerings made by 
friends before the funeral. Friends watch beside the 
body at night, and are careful to keep lights and 
incense burning during the seven days which 



298 JAPAN AIS WE SAW IT. 

generally precede the funeral. This attention to the 
dead will be kept up by the family for six weeks 
afterwards, but the friends will not attend. The 
priest (bonzu) then arrives, and repeats portions of 
the Buddhist scriptures, ringing a little bell mean- 
while. 

The procession on the funeral day is a good deal 
like that of the Shinto worshippers, who, indeed, 
probably borrowed their ceremonies from it. 

The principal differences to be noted are (a) no 
banners are carried ; (b) a larger number of flowers 
are used, among which the lotus flower has the 
first place ; (c) the priests are never on horseback. 

The procession having arrived at the temple, the 
coffin is buried in the graveyard, with a prayer of 
commendation that the departed spirit may become 
Butsu — i.e. either Buddha, or extinguished, or trans- 
ferred to Paradise. Water is offered and sprinkled 
on the grave, and white lanterns are stuck round it. 
Then, returning to the temple, the priest burns 
incense before the Ikai (tablet) of the deceased, 
which bears his name, not the name by which he 
was known during life, but a new name given to him 
at death. This naming of the soul at its entrance 
into the other world, as well as into this one, is a very 
interesting feature in Buddhism, and has no counter- 
part in Shinto. Incense is then burned by all the 
relations and friends ; many bows are made by them, 



JAPANESE FUNERALS. 299 

and silent prayers are offered, probably asking that 
the deceased may become Butsu. 

The funeral is then over, and the mourners and 
nearest friends return to the house of mourning. The 
new Ikai (tablet) of the deceased is put on the table, 
and incense and water are again offered before it. 
This is kept up for seven weeks, some of the family 
or friends also visiting the grave each day. On the 
seventh day a vegetarian dinner is given to the 
priest and relations, etc., at which the priest will try 
to deepen the superstitious reverence of the people by 
telling them tales of the other world. The spirit is 
supposed to dwell on the top of the roof for forty- 
nine days, and everything is done during that time 
to secure his happiness. But the seventh week being 
over, his Ikai is gradually neglected, though the 
anniversary of his death will be carefully observed, 
and special attention will be paid to the seventh, 
fourteenth, and twenty -first years, and so on. A 
stone is put up over his tomb at the first anniversary, 
and the graveyards all over Japan are noticeable for 
neatness, and beauty of situation, commanding almost 
always a fine view of the nearest city or surrounding- 
country. 

As regards the Buddhistic idea of Paradise, Mr. 
Imai was able to give us some curious details regard- 
ing the present popular teaching of Japanese priests 
on the subject. Paradise is described by them in 



300 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

four ways: (l) The philosophical ideal; really no 
Paradise at all, but the Nirvana of Indian Buddhism ; 

(2) The popular ideal, Gokaruku, in which poverty, 
death, tears, separation, illness, and age are unknown ; 

(3) The Paradise, or Paradise- worlds, of Transmigra- 
tion, in which world succeeds world, beginning with 
the present one. According to this, husband and 
wife will remain such for three worlds, master and 
servant the same for seven worlds, and so on. All 
special relationships will then cease, and individuality 
will alone remain. (4) The Paradise, or Paradise- 
worlds, of Transmigration, unconnected with this 
world, seven in number, succeeding each other as 
effect succeeds cause, but at times reduced, for the 
sake of convenience in popular teaching, to only 
three. This Paradise having no connection with the 
present world, and offering no solution of the varied 
gifts and unequal happiness of man, is not open 
to all, but is always accompanied by a corresponding 
Hell. 

The Buddhist priests constantly vary their teach- 
ing according to their audience. The more popular 
doctrines are found useful for a crowd of old women 
in a temple, and Nirvana is reserved for the in- 
telligent inquirer seeking private tuition. 

Mrs. Hind, of Fukuoka, told us that the people in 
that city observed specially curious ceremonies on the 
anniversary of the death of their relations, and that 



JAPANESE FUNERALS. 301 

during August she had picked up small paper boats 
on the shore which had been despatched with supplies 
of food for the dead. 

Mr. Imai afterwards sent me an explanation of 
these ceremonies, which will probably interest my 
readers as much as it did myself. 

In some districts of Japan, he said, the old calendar 
is used, and the memorial ceremonies which belong 
to July 13th to 16th are observed between August 
10th and 30th. They commence with a festival 
called " Ura bon ye" or " the day of all souls," when 
all souls of the departed are supposed to return from 
the eternal journey to their old homes. At the vigil 
observed on the day before the festival a fire is 
lighted, which is called the " Welcome home." The 
Butsudan is decorated, and all sorts of vegetables, 
cakes, etc., are offered upon it to the dead. Horses 
made of cucumber, with tails made of hairs of Indian 
corn, are also provided for them, the horses being 
supposed to carry the soul home. Every kind of 
hospitality is shown, and all sorts of kindly actions are 
practised during the time. The days are made par- 
ticularly pleasant to children, and Mr. Imai says that 
in his own province, Kotsuke, fires are kept burning 
all night at the entrance of the houses. The young 
men and girls wear festival dresses with masks 
over their faces, and dances are frequent. The 
boys are allowed to stay out late at night, and 



302 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

friendly fights are carried on between those of 
neighbouring districts, the victors returning home 
with spoils of cakes and fruit, etc., such small acts 
of robbery being considered to promote the feudal 
spirit of the time. The girls meanwhile have pro- 
cessions of lanterns, and go along singing little 
songs in honour of the festival. 

At last all being over, " Fires of farewells " are 
lighted at every door, and the souls of the departed 
resume once more their travels towards Paradise. 
How do they ever arrive there if they return to 
earth so often? Mr. Imai says this question has 
been asked in Japan ; but apparently no answer has 
ever been given to it. The offerings of food to the 
dead are either thrown into the river or the sea, or 
in some places are burnt. It must have been some 
of these pathetic little craft that Mrs. Hind found 
stranded on the shore at Fukuoka. 



( 303 ) 



CHAPTER XVII. 

LAST DAYS IN JAPAN. 

Nov. 13. — We left Kumamoto at a quarter past 
seven the following morning, en route to Nagasaki, 
from which we were to sail for England. Mr. Brand- 
ram, Miss Eiddell, and Miss Nott came to the station 
to see us off, and we had a pleasant journey from 
Kumamoto to Saga, with constant views of Shimabara, 
the mountain resort of the missionaries during the 
great heat of summer. At Saga, which we reached 
at 11 a.m., we took jinrikshas, and travelled in them 
for thirty miles, to a large town called Ureshino, the 
same set of runners taking us all the way. It was a 
beautiful journey, especially when late in the afternoon 
we went through one of the mountain passes. Its 
sides were clothed with white camellia-trees in full 
bloom interspersed with scarlet maples and deep 
crimson wax-trees, the vivid contrast between the 
two being made yet more vivid by the never-failing 
Japanese background of dark fir-trees and evergreen 
oaks. To add to the beauty of all, we had on our 
right the glow of a lovely sunset, pale lilac in the 



304 



JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 



intense clearness of an Eastern sky. On our left 
the full moon had risen, the stars were coming out, 
and we ourselves, with our line of quaint carriages 
and men, lighted by two or three Chinese lanterns, 
made a picturesque centre to the scene. 

At Ureshino we were to spend our second, and my 
father's fourth, night in a Japanese inn. It was 




JAPANESE BED. 



larger than the one at Utsunomiya, and we were 
even more of a curiosity to its owners. Mrs. Bicker- 
steth and I had a room on the upper floor, and the 
two Bishops shared a room immediately below us. 
The wind blew cold that night through the paper 
walls, and we were glad to get the amado, or wooden 
shutters, drawn outside the verandah. The rooms 



LAST DAYS IN JAPAN. 305 

were unfurnished, except for their matted floors, and 
a low screen, not nearly reaching to the ceiling, 
formed the only division between us and the guest 
in the next room. However, the landlady assured us 
that our neighbour upstairs was " a very nice man 
— a student at the University," and certainly nothing 
could exceed the quietness of his behaviour. Of 
course any arrangement for washing was impossible 
inside the inn, as it was a regular Japanese house, 
in which the bath-room would be always more or 
less public. But though my brother was not at 
hand when Mrs. Bickersteth and I first examined 
our lodgings for the night, we both remembered 
our success with the tin pails in the verandah at 
Utsunomiya. We therefore clapped our hands — the 
right way to summon a Japanese servant — and when 
the maid appeared, diligently washed them with in- 
visible soap, saying " Oyu " (hot water). This effort 
was rewarded with much success, and to our pride 
and satisfaction a solitary shallow wooden bowl, 
full of steaming hot water and standing on four legs, 
was soon placed in the verandah, and renewed the 
next morning. 

Much revived, we set to work to prepare an 
evening meal ; and the landlady soon hoisted in a 
foreign table, with only one leg missing (which she 
brought afterwards), and also four chairs. Though 
our few weeks in Japan had convinced us that the 

x 



306 



JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 



floor undoubtedly has its virtues, we were tired after 
the long journey, and did not despise these English 
comforts. As regards food, meat, bread, and milk 
are unknown except in the great cities; but Mrs. 
Brandram had filled our tiffin basket, and with its 




A BLIND SHAMPOOER. 



assistance, and some Japanese rice and eggs, we made 
a capital dinner, the landlady and maid sitting on the 
floor meanwhile, and kindly admiring our dexterity 
with chopsticks. Outside the inn dismal music was 
going on, and a story-teller was discoursing loudly, 



LAST DAYS IN JAPAN. 307 

and inside our room the group was soon increased by 
the head jinriksha man, who came to bargain with 
my brother i for the next day's journey. It must be 
confessed that this man tried hard to take in the 
foreigners, and charge 80 sen {2s. 8d.) each, instead 
of the right fare, probably about 40 sen. But my 
brother having overheard the landlady say to him, 
"You know you took me for 25 sen" (8^c?.), kept 
quite firm. The jinriksha man did not get his point, 
but had to accept 55 or 60 sen, which was really 
very good pay ; and, as foreigners are heavier than 
Japanese, a just increase on the sum that he had 
received for the landlady. My brother then told 
him that he had overheard' the conversation between 
him and the landlady. This sent all the Japanese 
present into fits of laughing, for there is nothing 
they love better than a good joke, or to see a neigh- 
bour's trick exposed. 

We went to bed early, having previously refused 
an offer from the landlady of a high wooden pillow. 
Men in Japan use a hard bolster ; but women, who 
only arrange their hair about once a week, use these 
wooden pillows, which fit into the back of the neck, 
and ensure that their coiffure is not disturbed during 
the night. We did our best to be comfortable, and 
with one futon (quilt) rolled up for a pillow, and two 
others for our mattress and blankets, we managed to 
get a fair amount of sleep. My brother, of course, 

x 2 



308 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

continually sleeps in such inns, and says that in 
winter they are extremely cold, as even we could tell 
from a comparatively warm night in November. We 
rose early, and after a comfortable breakfast of tea 
and eggs, and a warm farewell from the landlady, 
started in our jinrikshas by half-past seven. In a 
Japanese inn a bill is duly brought ; but the visitor 
must invariably add a little extra to the amount, 
which is called " Cha dai." At a wayside tea-house, 
on the contrary, no bill ever appears ; but the cus- 
tomer deposits what he considers a suitable sum in 
the corner of the tea-tray. 

We left Ureshino in thick fog, and were glad of 
all the wraps we had brought with us ; but the fog 
soon cleared off, and we had a pleasant run down to 
Sonogi, a little town on the north of the great Gulf 
of Omara. It was scarcely more than a fishing village, 
but a little coasting steamer called there each morning, 
which would take us round the gulf to Tokitsu, another 
small town, only ten miles' run in jinrikshas from 
Nagasaki, the great southern port of Japan. 

We had some time to wait at the hotel at Sonogi, 
as our steamer, which was due at ten o'clock, did not 
arrive until an hour later. The villagers gathered 
round us, and gently stroked and admired our clothes, 
having evidently seen but] little of foreigners. A 
rough pier of dark brown rocks ran out into the sea, 
and we walked up and down it, admiring the view of 



LAST DAYS IN JAPAN. 309 

the bay, which was very like a quiet corner in the 
Inland Sea. It was difficult indeed to realise that 
our tour in Japan was nearly over, and that the very 
next day would see us on our way to China, and 
separated from my brother, with whom we had spent 
such a delightful eleven weeks. But we tried hard 
not to let sad thoughts of the parting enter too often 
into this last day together; and when the quaint 
little steamer came within rowing distance of Sonogi, 
we soon went out to it in a sampan, and settled our- 
selves comfortably on board. The deck was very 
narrow, and had no seats, so we encamped on the roof 
of the tiny cabin. There we spent a most enjoyable 
three hours, as the steamer slowly made her way to 
Tokitsu, and we lazily watched the great purple 
jelly-fish that sailed past us in the clear waters of 
the gulf. We only stopped at one place en route, 
partly to take in passengers and partly to replenish 
the boiler with water, which was taken straight out 
of the sea, the operation being performed in a most 
primitive fashion with great wooden ladles. 

The steamer reached Tokitsu by 2 p.m., and after 
the usual bargaining with the jinriksha men, we 
started for the ten miles' run to Nagasaki. The road 
was pretty, but very hot and dusty ; and we were 
glad when the city came in sight, and we could stop at 
the house of Mr. and Mrs. Fuller, the C.M.S. mission- 
ary and his wife, who had kindly offered us hospitality 



310 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

for the night. They lived close to the water, on the 
Island of Deshinia, which in old days was the only 
spot in Japan where foreigners (and those only the 
Dutch) were allowed to land. At the present time a 
stranger would find it difficult to realise that it is 
an island, as it is joined to the mainland by several 
bridges. 

Nagasaki is built on the shore of a beautiful land- 
locked bay, and the harbour looked very gay that 
afternoon, crowded with shipping, among which we 
noticed the Imperieuse, a British man-of-war, and 
the General Werder, the German vessel in which we 
were to sail to China. AVe had secured a passage 
on a P. & 0., but unfortunately the steamer due to 
sail that week was in dock. 

After tea, Mr. Fuller accompanied us in a final 
shopping expedition — the last of many pleasant 
ones that we had made during our tour in Japan. 
Nagasaki shops are very foreign in their arrangements, 
with counters, chairs and tables as prosaic as those of 
Bond Street ; but we found plenty of genuine Japanese 
goods in them, including fine specimens of tortoise- 
shell and lacquer-work. In one of the tortoiseshell 
shops, for instance, there was a complete model of 
a large steamer of the Nippon Yusen Kwaisha Line, 
a sister boat to the Kobe Maru, in which we had 
come through the Inland Sea. Every detail of it was 
faithfully represented in the tortoiseshell. They told 



LAST LAYS IN JAPAN. 311 

us at Kobe that it is by heating the small shells 
that they can weld them into what is apparently one 
large one, twisting them also into the tiny wheels 
and cables of a model such as we saw that day. 

Nov. 15 (Sunday). — The next morning the weather 
was perfection, sunny and warm like early September 
in England. We went off at 9 a.m. to the Mission 
Church, where, after Matins in Japanese, my brother 
confirmed several candidates, three men and four 
women. Two of the men were medical students, 
and two of the women pupils from Mrs. Goodall's 
successful school for girls in Nagasaki. It was a 
very interesting service, and seemed a fitting close 
to all we; had seen of his work in Japan. We had 
just time to stay to the end, and then went to 
morning service at the English Church, which is 
built on one of the hills above the harbour. My 
father preached, and nearly all the foreign residents 
in Nagasaki were present. It was followed by a 
Celebration of Holy Communion, and we then walked 
down to the house of the consul (Mr. Hall), who 
had kindly invited us, and the captain and com- 
mander of the Imperieuse, to luncheon. His house 
was in a perfect situation, overlooking the bay of 
Nagasaki. We were much struck with a great fir-tree 
growing in the centre of the hall, its trunk passing 
through the roof, as the architect had not liked to 
cut it down when planning the building. Mr. and 



312 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

Mrs. Hall and their children gave us a very courteous 
welcome, but we had to leave them directly after 
luncheon, and return to Mr. Fuller's house for our 
luggage, as the General Werder was to sail at four 
o'clock, and had already been kept back an hour 
for our advantage. The consul kindly took us on 
board in his own boat, and we all tried to think 
of the delightful time we had spent in Japan rather 
than the coming good-bye to my brother. But 
partings at the best must be painful work, and 
when the General Werder rang her final bell, it 
was very hard to see him go. He returned in 
the consul's boat to shore, and we stood at the 
ship's side waving our handkerchiefs until he was 
lost to sight among the shipping of the crowded 
harbour. Almost at the same moment the General 
Werder began to move, and soon we were steam- 
ing rapidly through the bay of Nagasaki, passing by 
the island of Pappenberg — where, 200 years ago, 
it is said that thousands of Japanese Christians were 
thrown over the rocks because they would not trample 
on the cross — and watching the lights of Nagasaki, 
until it was too dark to remain any longer on deck. 



( 313 ) 



CHAPTEK XVIII. 

HOMEWARD BOUND. 

Our voyage to Hong Kong in the General Werder 
was rough, but decidedly favourable. She was a fine 
vessel, and made the passage in less than four days, 
entering the harbour of Hong Kong very early on the 
1 9th of November. 

We had a full week to wait at Hong Kong, as our 
next steamer, the P. and 0. Peshawur, did not start 
until the 26th. But, thanks to the kind hospitality 
afforded us by Mrs. Burdon of S. Paul's College, the 
delay gave us a delightful glimpse into English life in 
a large foreign settlement, and we also managed to 
spend a day in Canton. 

Bishop Burdon was, to our regret, absent at 
Shanghai, where he was presiding over a Conference 
on the revision of the present Chinese translation of 
the Bible, but his wife and son did everything in 
their power to show us the sights of the island. 

On one day we went along the Viaduct road to the 
noble Titam-tuk reservoirs, which supply the city of 
Victoria with water, and on another we went up to 



'314 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

the Peak, a hill-station 1300 feet above the city, and 
.always ten degrees lower in temperature. 

We also visited the Botanical Gardens, and lunched 
at Government House with the Acting-Governor, 
General Barker. On Sunday, Nov. 22, my father 
preached in the Cathedral in the morning, and in the 
Seamen's Chapel at night, both times to crowded con- 
gregations. He also inspected the work of the C.M.S. 
Mission in Hong Kong ; and it was under the very 
efficient guidance of Mr. Grundy, one of the mission- 
aries, that we paid our visit to Canton. 

Eiots had been going on at that time in Amoy 
and other Chinese cities, so we decided to go up 
the river by night, and after spending the day in 
Canton, to return to Hong Kong by night also. We 
therefore embarked on the Fatshan, one of the com- 
fortable line of steamers that ply daily between the 
two cities. She had an English captain and officers, 
but a Chinese crew, and a large stand of flre- 
.arms was placed in the saloon, in case of any rising 
von the part of the crew. 

We sailed from Hong Kong at 5.30 p.m. and arrived 
at Canton by 8 a.m. on the following morning. We 
went on deck at once, and were much interested by 
the " river population," in the midst of which our 
steamer had anchored. Four hundred thousand of 
the Cantonese live in boats, and form quite a distinct 
population from those on shore. They are born, 



HOMEWARD BOUND. 315 

married, live and die on their tiny craft, and it is 
reported that people on shore will not intermarry with 
them until they have lived on shore also for three 
generations. A small, arched bamboo roof covered 
half the boat, and made the family bedroom, the 
open part being devoted to passengers, cooking, or 
cargo, as the case might require. Each boat was 
worked by a single oar, and each had its own 
place in the neat rows near the wharf. Yet any 
boat could make its way out with a little polite 
assistance from its neighbours. If a man wanted 
to go on shore, or visit his friends, he jumped on 
the roof of Lis own craft and dropped in upon his 
neighbour's, or stepped ashore with the utmost ease. 

Mr. Grundy having received news that the city was 
considered perfectly quiet and safe for foreigners that 
day, we ordered "chairs," or palanquins, at once, and 
started for a lon^ ramble through its narrow streets. 
They are so narrow that two chairs can only just 
pass each other ; light bamboo roofs often join the 
upper storeys on either side, and just above our heads 
hung numberless signboards, painted in gold, and 
giving a most picturesque appearance to the streets. 
Truly, we were in the land of pigtails, from the 
few braided hairs of the babies, lengthened to their 
full extent by a scarlet cord and tassel, to the mighty 
appendages of their seniors, which had to be tucked 
into the pocket or worn as a chignon when found at 



316 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

all cumbersome. But, on the whole, the people were 
very friendly. The children mocked at us, tapped 
our arms, and made horrible faces when they caught 
us looking at them. But the grown-up people were 
quite pleasant, and would generally respond to a 
smile. It was only at any little delay in the streets 
that it came across one how difficult it would be to 
escape in any sudden riot. 

Mr. Grundy having been thirteen years in China, and 
many of them in Canton, could talk Chinese fluently, 
and he told us that he heard the people saying, " "We 
must be careful what we say, he knows Chinese ! " He 
took us first to the Foreign Concession, a well laid out 
piece of ground near the river, and a great contrast to 
the narrow streets of the native city. It was sad to 
hear there was no regular English chaplain in Canton, 
the foreign residents being quite content that a Non- 
conformist minister should put on a surplice and read 
the English service to them in their Church on 
Sundays. The Koman Catholics, on the contrary, had 
obtained leave to build a Cathedral in Canton itself, 
and its graceful spires and fine proportions made us 
long that our Church should be equally well re- 
presented. Their efforts had not ended with the 
Cathedral, for, at the time of our visit, they were 
building a second Church in the Foreign Concession. 

After a visit to an ivory warehouse and a furniture 
shop, we went on to the Temple of the Five 



HOMEWARD BOUND. 317 

Hundred Genii. The outside looked very poor, after 
the deep-pitched roofs of the Japanese temples, but 
the figures inside were very curious. Buddha, of 
course, was in the centre, calm and self-absorbed r as 
usual, and on either side of him two hundred and 
fifty followers, sitting in a long row of chairs placed 
round the temple, and with the most comical expres- 
sions on their faces. One of them had an abnormally 
long arm, and another a European face and full 
Spanish costume. This figure is generally believed 
to represent Marco Polo, who was very popular with 
the Chinese of his day. 

Our next stoppage was at the Temple of the Five 
Genii, five ugly figures holding ears of corn, maize, 
millet, or grass, etc., in their hands, and with a 
rough block of stone placed before them. These 
stones represented five rams, according to the popular 
tradition that five genii in the form of rams founded 
the city of Canton, and were afterwards turned into 
stone. 

We then visited the nine -stor eyed pagoda, a grace- 
ful building, with walls thirteen feet thick, but being 
closed to visitors we could only examine it from the 
courtyard. Mr. Grundy also took us to the Military 
Quarters, formerly occupied by English troops, and 
still owned by our Consulate. They are surrounded 
by a beautiful garden, in which we met a Christian 
Chinese boy, who knew some English, and had been 



318 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

deserted by his father, and left to make his own way 
in the great city. We gave him the address of a 
missionary, and he seemed most grateful for a few 
words of sympathy. 

We then went to the celebrated temples on Kunyam 
Hill. They were thronged with women, and we 
listened to one poor thing praying very earnestly for 
the recovery of her sick husband. She held a large 
piece of paper in her hand, bought from the priest 
for a few coppers, and said by them to be worth 
thousands of pounds in the eyes of the gods. This 
she lighted, and having carried it flaming across the 
temple, dropped it into a hole in the wall pro- 
vided for such offerings. It was a piteous sight, and 
she reappeared at the next shrine with an offering of 
a potato, money, and incense (joss) sticks, evidently 
determined to leave no deity unasked to relieve her 
trouble. From the platform of these temples there 
is a fine bird's-eye view of Canton ; but we only 
stayed there for a few minutes, and went on to the five- 
storeyed pagoda on the city wall. We lunched on 
its uppermost storey, and were rewarded for the 
climb by a still finer view of the city, and of its 
famous walls. They are from six to twenty feet wide, 
and built of bricks, as smooth and stone-like in 
their strength as those of the Komans. We also saw 
in the distance the buildings called the " City of the 
Dead," where the Chinese keep the bodies of their 



HOMEWARD BOUND. 319- 

relations until a suitable day can be fixed for the 
funeral. The decision may not be made for months 
and years, and varies according to the financial 
interests of the priests, or the difficulty caused by a 
distant place of burial. 

After leaving the pagoda we returned to the 
narrow streets, and everything seemed so quiet that 
Mr. Grundy said we might walk for a little way, 
instead of bein£ hurried along as before in our 
palanquins. We thus obtained a capital idea of the 
various trades carried on in a Chinese city, and, 
though the colours seemed gaudy, and the houses 
exceedingly dirty after Japan, we had an amusing 
time peeping into them, and making friends with 
their pig-tailed owners. We began with a gilt-thread 
factory and embroidery warehouse, and went on to a 
button maker's, in whose shop we bought little bunches 
of five buttons, this being the orthodox Chinese 
number, as every man wears five on his coat. We 
stood outside the shops of the mandarins, gay with 
gilt umbrellas and bridal crowns, and looked into 
the highly-decorated eating-houses, and butchers' 
shops, provided with any amount of pork and long 
rows of ducks with outspread wings and curiously 
flattened bodies. Then returning to our palanquins, 
we passed a number of drapers' shops, where every 
article of a Chinese costume could be procured, from 
the tiny embroidered shoes of the foot-bound women 



320 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

to the gay-colourecl coats and black satin pyjamas of 
their husbands and brothers. Last, but not least, 
we saw numbers of jade shops, in which earrings and 
bracelets of the brilliant green stone lay in tempting 
but terribly expensive profusion. 

By this time we were getting very tired, but before 
returning to the steamer we stopped at a large 
Presbyterian Mission Hospital, conducted on Chinese 
methods as regards food, bedding, etc., but with 
European medicines and treatment. Dr. Kerr, the 
Principal, was away, but his assistant, an intelli- 
gent young Chinese, took us round the wards. Of 
course, they looked very uncomfortable to English 
eyes ; the beds were a few boards raised on bamboo 
trestles, and the patients lay on them wrapped only 
in a quilt or straw mat, and with an oblong wooden 
or china pillow.* But the hospital being intended 
for the destitute poor, it is thought best not to 
make too strong a contrast between it and their 
homes. It has done very good work in Canton, and 
the city authorities have shown their appreciation by 
contributing to its maintenance. 
> We returned to the Fatshan by 4 p.m., and left 
the wharf at 6.30, going very slowly at first, as the 
river was crowded with junks, whose owners consider 
it most lucky to cross the bows of a steamer. 

* These china pillows often have a hole in the middle to hold 
a purse. 



HOMEWARD BOUND. 321 

We arrived at Hong Kong early the next morn- 
ing, and duly sailed on the 26th for Singapore and 
Colombo in the P. & 0. Peshawur (Captain Wheler). 
For two or three days we had a rough time of it, 
owing to the after effects of a typhoon, which had 
compelled another P. & 0. to turn back three times 
on her way from Singapore. But after the 29th 
the weather improved, and we began to enjoy our 
voyage in the tropics. 

Early on the 1st of December we steamed into 
the harbour at Singapore, where we were to wait for 
twenty-four hours. We had no friends on shore, and 
therefore decided to drive into the city and visit the 
Cathedral and Botanical Gardens, returning to the 
steamer at night. The town is four miles from the 
wharf, but we were able to take a gharry, or small 
carriage holding four persons, open on all sides, but 
with a good strong roof to keep off the sun. It was 
lined with bright yellow,- and trimmed with blue, 
green, and scarlet braid and tassels, the Malay coach- 
man, with his long black curls, and dark skin, and a 
scarlet handkerchief knotted round his head, being 
a further adornment. The land on each side of 
the road had been reclaimed from the sea, and still 
looked swampy and malarious. It was, however, 
covered with a number of Malay houses, built on 
stakes several feet above the ground, and the dusky 
faces and gay cotton kilts of their owners presented 

Y 



322 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

a thoroughly Eastern appearance. A number of 
jinrikshas, bullock-carts, and gharries like our own 
were coming to and from the city, and the drive 
seemed all too short before we drove into Raffles 
Square. 

Here our plans were suddenly altered, for the 
Governor, Sir Cecil Smith, having seen our name in 
the list of the Peshawurs passengers, courteously 
sent his secretary to meet us in the city and offer 
hospitality for all the time we were at Singapore. 
We therefore spent a very pleasant day at Govern- 
ment House, and, in the afternoon, he and Lady 
Clementi-Smith took us to see the Botanical Gardens. 
They were full of beautiful palm-trees, and the open 
greenhouses had lovely creepers trained over the 
woodwork, no glass being necessary in that climate 
to preserve the most delicate orchids. The great 
feature of Singapore scenery is undoubtedly the vivid 
green of the grass and the tropical vegetation. 
There is scarcely any variation in the climate, and 
our friends told us they sometimes longed for the 
changes of the English seasons instead of the unbroken 
sunshine and flowers of Singapore. 

We returned to the Peshawur by 11 p.m., and she 
sailed for Penang early the next morning. The sea 
being perfectly calm, we had a delightful day watch- 
ing the beautiful scenery of the Straits of Malacca, 
and arrived at Penang the following afternoon. Some 



HOMEWARD BOUND. 323 

of the judges of the Straits Settlements, who had 
come on board at Singapore, kindly took us ashore 
in their steam-launch, where the acting deputy- 
governor, General Trotter, repeated the hospitality of 
Sir Cecil Smith, and invited us to spend the afternoon 
at Government House. It was three miles out of 
the city, but a Chinese gentleman having put his 
carriage at our disposal, we had nearly arrived at 
our destination when the axletree broke ; the carriage 
began to collapse, and we had to jump out at a 
moment's notice and walk the rest of the way. After 
tea at Government House, General Trotter drove us 
some three miles further in order that we might see 
the Penang Botanical Gardens, which are even finer 
than those at Singapore. He then took us safely 
back to the harbour before the Peshawur sailed again 
at 6 p.m. 

In the course of the evening it was found that a 
poor Chinaman had got on board by mistake, thinking- 
it was the right steamer for Canton, and having dis- 
covered his whereabouts, was nearly wild with fright 
and distress. We had already gone some distance 
from Penang, but the captain sent him back by the 
pilot-boat, and the passengers crowded to the bul- 
warks to see him lowered into it. He looked just 
like a fat black satin pincushion as he was swung 
over the side, and we all hoped he would be in time for 
his own steamer, which was not sailing until 10 p.m. 

Y 2 



324 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

From Penang we had a very pleasant voyage to 
Colombo, which we reached early on the 8th of 
December. We were met by a kind letter from the 
Bishop and Mrs. Coplestone, inviting us to stay with 
them until the 10th, when we were to sail again in 
the P. k 0. Valetta for Brindisi. Their house, a 
regular Indian bungalow, was two miles from the 
harbour, close to one of the small lakes of Colombo. 
The rooms were very high, and surrounded by a 
broad verandah, the lovely garden being full of cocoa- 
nut palms. Unfortunately, after the first morning 
the weather was extremely wet, so we did not see 
much of Colombo itself, nor of Kandy, to which we 
made an expedition on the 9th. But even a wet 
journey to Kandy was well worth while, for the moun- 
tain railway recalled in miniature our journey across 
the Rockies, and we had many glimpses en route of 
the lovely tropical vegetation, and the tea plantations 
of which we had so often heard in England. 

Mr. Coplestone, the resident army chaplain, met us 
at Kandy station, and, under his guidance, we visited 
Trinity College,' in charge of the C.M.S. Mission. We 
also went to the famous Buddhist temples, and saw 
as much of the town of Kandy as was possible through 
the heavy mist and rain. 

The following day the weather was no better, but 
the Bishop and Archdeacon Boyd insisted on coming 
to the harbour to see us on board the P. & 0. Valetta 



HOMEWARD BOUND. 325 

(Captain Briscoe), which had come in from Australia 
that morning, bringing among her passengers for 
Colombo, General Booth and Mr. Rudyard Kipling, 
the novelist. She was due to sail at 4 p.m., but 
about three o'clock a tremendous thunderstorm burst 
over the city. The forked lightning was the most 
vivid we had ever seen, and coaling proved a longer 
process than had been expected. The heavy rain 
which followed delayed her another twelve hours, as 
the cargo of tea could not be shipped until it had 
ceased. 

However, she was able to start early on the 11th, 
and after two rather rough days, we had a pleasant 
voyage to Aden, where we arrived late on the night 
of the 15th. The scene was very pretty as the great 
ship lay at anchor, her long line of electric lights 
reflected in the w x ater, and blue lights at her bows 
to show she carried the Australian mail. The pas- 
sengers, in light summer dresses, soon began a busy 
traffic with some Arab merchants from the town. 
Their gay dresses contrasted well with the dark faces 
around them, while the captain, cane in hand, came 
to comment on the purchases, or lightly chastise an 
Arab when over-impudent. 

We sailed again before daylight the next morning, 
and had splendid weather for our voyage through 
the Eed Sea. It was intensely hot at first, and we 
passed many pleasant hours watching the magnificent 



326 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

sunsets over the African mountains, and listening 
after dinner to the band of the Australian flagship, 
some of whose men were on board the Valetta. 
But on the 19th the wind changed to the north, 
and two days later, the thermometer having sunk 
twenty-six degrees, we were all shivering in winter 
wraps. 

We arrived at Suez on the 22nd, and had a quick 
passage through the Canal, arriving at Port Said early 
on the 23rd. 

It was very difficult to believe we were so near 
Christmas, and though we made many plans for its 
due observance, they were all frustrated by a heavy 
cross-sea in the Mediterranean, which sent nearly 
all the passengers to their berths. However, a few 
bravely ventured to a short morning service on 
Christmas Day, at which my father preached, and 
we sang some Christmas hymns, and by the following 
morning the capricious Mediterranean was as calm 
as a lake. We spent a very pleasant " Boxing Day " 
in full view of the Albanian mountains, the long line 
of snowy peaks looking peculiarly beautiful beyond 
the low dark cliffs of Corfu. 

The bad weather, however, had delayed us twelve 
hours, and we did not reach Brindisi until 1.30 a.m. 
on the 27th. It was a bitterly cold night, and 
after saying good-bye to the Valetta, we were 
thankful to settle ourselves in the well- warmed 



HOMEWARD BOUND. 327 

P. & 0. mail-train, in which we were to make a forty- 
four hours' run to Calais, as it was important for my 
father to reach home before the close of the year. 

We arrived at Calais just before midnight on the 
28th, thoroughly tired with the long journey, and 
a little sorry to receive our first English welcome 
from a newspaper reporter, who had come over the 
Channel in order to gain our impressions of the earth- 
quake in Japan. With admirable persistence he 
followed us through a very rough passage to Dover, 
and accompanied us in the railway carriage to London, 
saying, i: Every moment is precious." We did our 
best for him, but it was a decided relief to see a 
fairly correct report in his paper the next day. 

After one night in London we went down to 
Exeter on the 30th. The Cathedral bells rang a 
cheery " AVelcome Home " to my father from the 
Diocese, and warm congratulations on our return and 
on our preservation in the earthquake reached us 
from every side. Our tour had taken exactly twenty 
w^eeks, and it w T as very difficult to realize that all we 
had seen and done had been compressed into so short 
a time. 

But we all felt " Japan as we saw it " had taught 
us lessons that we could never have learned at home, 
not only by the personal acquaintance that we had 
formed with its warm-hearted people and with their 
beautiful country, but by the insight that we had 



328 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

gained into the strangely interesting struggle going 
on among them between the darkness of heathenism 
and infidelity, and the true light of Christianity. 

We had seen and heard for ourselves from the 
missionaries of the difficulties and perplexities of their 
work. We had estimated on the spot the fierceness 
of the battle that the Church is waging against ap- 
parently overwhelming odds. We had gained some 
little idea of the utter failure of Buddhism and 
Shintoism to satisfy their votaries, or to instil any 
principles of high morality and true progress. 

Yet through all, and above all, the strong hopeful- 
ness of the cause had predominated. We had never 
come across one station where work was flagging, 
except for lack of further missionaries. We had met 
and heard of converts from every class of society, from 
the court nobles of Tokyo to the blind basket-maker 
of Nagoya, or the villagers of Oyamada. We had 
carefully studied the varied organization through 
which, with the loyal concurrence of their clergy, 
the American and English Bishops are building up 
the native Church on the lines of Catholic truth 
and order. We had noted their appreciation of the 
national characteristics that must characterize its 
development in a country of strong individuality 
like Japan. 

To gather up our experiences in fewest words. It 
was no story of assured victory that we had to bring 



HOMEWARD BOUND. 329 

home with us, no life of ease that we had to offer to 
any further missionaries. 

Our message was, rather, that in Japan there is a 
post of honour in the forefront of the battle ; problems 
to solve that will claim the highest powers of heart 
and brain ; a home in a far distant land, whose very 
distance involves an almost complete severance from 
English interests and kindred ; and, more than all, 
opportunities now within our grasp that, if allowed to 
slip, may never recur. 

Now — or never. The words are written on many a 
promising missionary opening in Japan. But let the 
Churches of our Anglican Communion be faithful to 
their trust, and the victory of the Cross will yet be 
won ; and won — who could wish otherwise — by the 
same self-sacrifice and loving patience that have 
marked every true Mission of the Church from the 
earliest days to our own. 




JAPANESE PILGRIMS. 



( 331 ) 



NOTES. 

Note A.— LIST OF THE CLERGY AND LAY WORKERS 
OP THE CHURCH IN JAPAN. 

I. Anglican Bishop. —The Right Rev. Edward Bickersteth, D.D. 
Fellow of Pembroke College, Cambridge. 

Cleroy, 3G (S.P.G., 4; C.M.S, 21; S. Andrew's Mission, 5; 
Canadian Church, 3 ; Chaplains, 3). 



Clergy. 



Rev. W. Andrews, M.A. 
Rev. W. T. Austen . . 

Rev. J. M. Baldwin, M.A. 

Rev. J. Batchelor . . 
Rev. H. L. Bleby . 
Rev. J. Brandram, M.A. 
Rev. W. P. Buncombe, B.A 
Rev. B. F. Buxton, M.A. 
Rev. G. Chapman . . 

Rev. A. Chappell . . 
Rev. L. B. Cholmondeley, M.A 
Rev. H. Evinoton, M.A. 
Rev. H. J. Foss, M.A. . 
Rev. F. E. Freese, M.A. 
Rev. A. R. Fuller . . 
Rev. P. K. Fyson, M.A. . 



(Hakodate) . 


. C.M.S. 


1878 


(Yokohama) Seamen's Mis- 




sion. 




1871 


(Nagoya) Church of England 




in Canada . 




1889 


(Hakodate) . 


. C.M.S. 


1879 


(Osaka) . 


. C.M.S. 


1890 


(Kumamoto) . 


. C.M.S. 


1881 


(Tokushima, Shikoku) C.M.S. 


1888 


(Matsue) . . . 


. C.M.S. 


1890 


(Holy Trinity College 


Conces- 




sion, Osaka) 


. C.M.S. 


1881 


(Gifu, Mino) . . 


. C.M.S. 


1888 


(11, Sakaicho, Shiba, 


Tokyo) 


1887 


(Concession, Osaka) 


. C.M.S. 


1871 


(The Firs, Kobe). 


. S.P.G. 


i<s7<; 


(Yokohama) . 


. S.P.G. 


1889 


(Nagasaki) 


C.M.S. 


1888 


(Osaka) . 


C.M.S. 


1871 



332 



JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 



Eev. C. G. Gardner 



Eev. H. T. Hamilton, B.A. 

Eev. J. Hind, M.A. . . 
Eev. A. B. Hutchinson . 
Eev. E. 0. Irwine, M.A. 

Eev. A. F. King, M.A. . 



Eev. D. M. Lang, M.A. . 
Yen. Archd. Maundrell 
Eev. H. Moore, M.A. . 



Eev. H. S. Morris, M.A, 
Eev. G. H. Pole, M. A. . 
Eev. H. M. Price, M.A. 
Eev. J. Cooper Eobinson, 

Eev. L. F. Eyde . 



.A. 



Yen. Archd. Shaw, M.A. 
Eev. S. Swann, M.A. . 
Eev. J. G. Waller, M.A. 

Yen. Archd. C. F. Warren 
Eev. C. T. Warren, B.A. 
Eev. W. Weston, M.A. . 
Eev. J. Williams 



(11, Sakaicho, Shiba, Tokyo), 
S. Andrew's University 
Mission 

(Nagoya) Church of England 
in Canada 

(Fukuoka) . . . C.M.S. 

(Fukuoka) . . .C.M.S. 

(Chaplain of Christ Church, 
Yokohama) .... 

(11, Sakaicho, Shiba, Tokyo), 
S, Andrew's University 
Mission 

(Kumamoto) . . . C.M.S. 

(Nagasaki) . . .C.M.S. 

(11, Sakaicho, Shiba, Tokyo), 
S. Andrew's University 
Mission 

(Kobe) .... S.P.G. 

(Osaka) . . . .C.M.S. 

(Osaka) . . . .C.M.S. 

(Nagoya) Church of England 
in Canada 

(11, Sakaicho, Shiba, Tokyo), 
S. Andrew's University 
Mission 

(Shiba, Tokyo) . . S.P.G. 

(Fukuyama, Bingo) . C.M.S. 

(Fukushima), Church of Eng- 
land in Canada .... 

(Osaka) . . . .C.M.S. 

(Tokushima) . . . C.M.S. 

(Chaplain of Kobe) . 

(Tsukiji, Tokyo) . . C.M.S. 



1887 

1892 
1890 

1882 

1880 



1889 
1890 

1875 



1891 

1892 
1881 
1890 

1888 



1891 

1873 
1890 

1891 
1873 

1890 
1888 
1876 



Lay Workers. 

Mr. J. Chappell. . . 1886 

Mr. H. Hughes (Kobe) .... S.P.G. 1878 

Mr. W. F. Madeley .... (Hiroshima) 1889 



NOTES. 333 

Mr. C. Nettleship .... (Hakodate) . . . C.M.S. 1890 

Mr. Parrot (Matsue) 1891 

Miss Ballard (S. Hilda's Mission, Tokyo) . 1892 

Miss Birkenhead .... (Kobe) Ladies' Association, 

S.P.G 1888 

Miss Bolton (Osaka), Society for Promot- 
ing Female Education in 

the East 1885 

Miss Bosanquet . . . * . (C.M.S.) 1892 

Miss Brandram (Kumamoto) . . . C.M.S. 1884 

Miss Bullock (S. Hilda's Mission, Azabu, 

Tokyo) 1891 

Miss Buxton (Matsue) .... C.M.S. 1892 

Miss Cox (Osaka) .... C.M.S. 1889 

Miss Dunn (Sapporo) 1890 

Mrs. Edmonds (Osaka) .... C.M.S. 1889 

Miss L. Faucett (Tokushima) . . .C.M.S. 1890 

Mrs. Goodall (Nagasaki) . . . C.M.S. 1876 

Nurse G-race Hartley . (S. Hilda's Mission, Azabu, 

Tokyo) 1888 

Miss Hamilton . . . . . (Osaka), Society for Promot- 
ing Female Education in 

the East 1886 

Mrs. Harvey (Nagasaki). . . C.M.S. 1892 

Miss Hogan (S. Hilda's Mission, Tokyo) . 1892 

Miss Holland (Osaka) 1888 

Miss Howard (Osaka) .... C.M.S. 1891 

Miss Alice Hoar .... (Shiba, Tokyo) S.P.G., Ladies' 

Asscciation 1875 

Miss Annie Hoar .... (Shiba, Tokyo) . . , . 1885 

Miss Huhold (S. Hilda's Mission, Toyko) 

C.M.S 1892 

Miss M. Hunt (Tokushima) . . . C.M.S. 1890 

Miss Julius (Osaka) .... C.M.S. 1888 

Mrs. Mola (Kobe) Ladies' Association, 

S.P.G 1893 

Miss Mola (Kobe) Ladies' Association, 

S.P.G 1893 



334 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 

MissG.NoTT (Kuuiamoto) . . O.M.S. 1890 

Miss Payne (Kushiro) . . . C.M.S. 1888 

Miss B. 0. Payne . . . (Kushiro) . . . C.M.S. 1892 

Miss Porter (Yonago) 1889 

Miss P. Riddell. . . . (Kumamoto) . .C.M.S. 1890 

Miss E. Ritson .... (Tokushima) . . C.M.S. 1890 

Miss Sander (Matsue) . . . C.M.S. 1890 

Miss Snowden . (S. Hilda's Mission, Azabu, 

Tokyo) 1888 

Miss Shirlock . . . . (1, Nagasaka-cho, Azabu, 

Tokyo), Church of Eng- 
land in Canada . . . 1891 

Miss Tapson (Hakodate) . . C.M.S. 1888 

Miss Tennent .... (Fukuoka) . . . C.M.S. 1891 
Miss Thompson .... (Matsue) . . . C.M.S. 1890 
Miss Thornton . (S. Hilda's Mission, Aza- 
bu, Tokyo) .... 1887 
Miss Tristram .... (Osaka) . . . C.M.S. 1888 
Miss Wood (Osaka) . . . C.M.S. 1891 

The Bishop* s Commissaries : — The Rev. R. L. Ottley, Magdalen 
College, Oxford ; The Rev. Professor Stanton, Trinity 
College, Cambridge ; The Rev. S. Bickersteth, The Vicarage, 
Lewisham, S.E. 

II. American Bishop. — The first American Bishop (Dr. Williams) 
retired in 1890. His successor has not yet been appointed. 

Clergy, 9. 

Lay Workers, 24. 

III. Japanese. 

Clergy. — (In connection with English Missions, 13), 7 priests 
and 1 deacon. 

(In connection with American Missions, 6), 1 priest and 5 
deacons. 

List of Japanese Clergy (in English Mission). 

Rev. T. P. Arato .... (Fukuyama) . . . 1892 
Rev. A. Iida (Shimofukuda) . . 1889 



NOTES. 



335 



Rev. J. Imai Toshdeiohi . 
Rev. Stephen" Koba. 
Rev. T. Makioka . . . 
Rev. T. Mizuno .... 
Rev. Yoshiyuki Nakanishi 
Rev. A. Shdiada .... 
Rev. B. Hlsayoshi Terasawa 
Rev. D. Totaro Terata 
Rev. S. P. Yamada . . . 
Rev. Y. Ya^iagata . 
Rev. C. N. Yoshizawa . 

Japanese Lay Workers. — (In connection with English. Mi 
Catechists, 62 ; Divinity Students, 34. 

(In connection with American Missions), Catechists, 34 
Divinity Students, 8. 



(Tokyo) . 








1888 


(Osaka) 








1889 


(Osaka) 








1890 


(Kobe) 








1890 


(Osaka) 








1887 


(Tokyo) 








1889 


(Osaka) 








1887 


(Gifu) 








1887 


(Tokyo) 








. 1892 


(Numazu) 








. 1885 


(Tokyo) 








.. 1889 



ssions), 



._J Note B.— THE GUILD OF S. PAUL. 

Patron : — The Lord Bishop of Exeter. 

President : — The Bishop in Japan. 

General Secretary : — Miss M. Bickersteth, The Palace, Exeter. 

Rules of S. Paul's Guild. — 1. The appointed prayer to be 
used by Members every Sunday, if possible, at the time of a 
Celebration of Holy Communion. 2. Each Member to pay a 
subscription of not less than 2/6 annually, and, if able, to collect 
alms for the Mission. 

The Rules for Local Branches may be obtained from the 
General Secretary, The Palace, Exeter. 

General Information. — Short papers of Information, letters 
from the Bishop, etc., and Intercession papers are circulated 
from time to time, free of charge, to all Members of the Guild. 
Special information regarding S. Hilda's Mission may be obtained 
from the Secretary, Miss M. Bickersteth, and regarding S. An- 
drew's Mission from the Bishop's Comm issaries. 



How to Join S. Paul's Guild. — The name of any proposed 



336 JAPAN A8 WE SAW IT. 

Member should be sent, with subscription and full postal address 
to the Secretary, The Palace, Exeter, who will supply past papers 
of the Guild, and enter the name on the General Koll. 

Special Objects op S. Paul's Guild. — 1. To offer intercession 
that God may call clergy and others to His work in Japan, and 
to enable them to carry it on to His glory. 2. To collect alms 
for the University Mission of S. Andrew, and the Mission of 
S. Hilda, at Tokyo, the capital of Japan. 

Roll of the Guild. — The Guild of S. Paul is now divided 
into sixty-six Branches, and has over 2000 Members. 

Bankers : — Messrs. Sanders & Co., The Exeter Bank, Exeter. 

Note C— THE BISHOP'S MISSIONS AT TOKYO. 

S. Andrew's University Mission. 

Rev. L. B. Cholmondeley, 1887, Oriel College, Oxford. 
Rev. C. G. Gardner, 1887, S. Stephen's House, Oxford. 
Rev. A. F. King, 1889, Keble College, Oxford. 
Rev. Herbert Moore, 1890, Keble College, Oxford. 
Rev. F. L. Ryde, 1891, S. John's College, Oxford. 



The folloiving ivorlc is now carried on by this Mission : — 

The Divinity School, under the Wardenship of the Rev. H. 
Armine King, assisted by the Mission. It numbers thirteen 
Members, who receive careful training in theology, and from time 
to time go out into the country districts to prove their powers of 
teaching. 

The Night School and Club, conducted by the Rev. L. B. 
Cholmondeley for clerks in Government or merchant offices. This 
is attended by thirty to thirty-eight students, and some of its 
members have been baptized. 

Four Mission Districts of To7cyo, named Kyobashi, Ushigome, 
Mita, and Akasaka. Each, except the last established, Akasaka, 
has a small Church and native congregation, and in each full 
parish life is maintained, supplemented by direct evangelistic work 



NOTES. 337 

among the heathen, such as Mission dispensaries, preaching stations, 
and classes for enquirers and catechumens. 

The evangelistic work in the country has been limited, until 
lately, by the small numbers of the Mission, but in any place they 
have visited regularly good results have followed. Thus, at the 
village of Inui, a young man named Ishida has been baptized and 
trained as a catechist, and already the leaven of Christianity is 
gradually spreading in his village, and Ishida's family and several 
others have been baptized. At Shiinofukuda there is a vigorous 
Mission station now in charge of a Japanese priest, the Rev. 
Yamagata Yoneji. 

Valuable educational work has lately been taken by the 
Mission in the Keiogijiku College for 1G00 boys at Tokyo. 



S. Hilda's Mission. 

Miss Thornton, 1887. 

Nurse Grace (Miss Hartley), 1888. 

Miss Mildred Snowden, 1888. 

Miss Bullock, 1891. 

Miss Hogan, 1892. 

Sakai San, 1892 i T ir 7 

T a -,™^ Japanese Members. 

Isobe San, 1892) r 



The following ivork is now carried on by this Mission : — 

1. The training of Japanese ivomen as Missioyi tvorkers, by means 
of daily theological instruction and practical work under the 
superintendence of the Members. The women are divided into two 
classes : (a) Ladies of good education living in S. Hilda's House, 
who are trained in evangelistic work among the heathen, to give 
instruction to women preparatory to baptism and confirmation, 
and to hold general Bible-classes,- etc.; (b) Women of less 
education living in the Japanese Mission House, who are trained 
in evangelistic work among the heathen. 

2. Evangelistic and other ivork among the women and children 
in the districts of Ushigome and Kyobashi. 

3. A School for young ladies from six years old, in which a 



33$ JAFAN AS WE SAW IT. 

sound Japanese education is given, and English is also taught. 
Eeligious instruction is regularly given to the whole School, which 
numbers at present forty pupils, and an Association recently 
formed for Old Girls, holds meetings once in two months. 

4. A School for English needlework. This is intended to 
enable Christian girls to earn their own living, and is also very 
useful in bringing them among Christian surroundings, when 
their homes are still heathen. 

5. A small Orphanage for girls, which was opened to take in 
s,ome of the children rendered destitute by the late earthquake. 
To this is attached a free school for very poor children. 

6. 3£edical worTc. This consists of (a) a hospital of twenty 
beds, in which Japanese women are trained as nurses ; (b) Dis- 
pensparies in different parts of Tokyo, where doctor's advice and 
medicine are given free to very poor patients. Classes for enquirers 
and catechumens are held, and many patients from both hospital 
and dispensaries have been baptized. 

Note D.— CHUECH SYNODS IN JAPAN. 

First Synod, 1887. 

The First Synod was held at Tokyo in 1887. Its primary object 
was to form one native Church out of the various congregations 
scattered throughout Japan, or, rather, to publicly acknowledge 
the unity they already possessed as a true branch of the Catholic 
Church. 

Its secondary object was to establish its own position as a 
representative body or Synod of clergy and laity, which would 
meet every two years under the presidency of the Bishop, in order 
to discuss and forward in every way the progress of Church affairs. 

Its Members were elected by local Councils, who met at four 
centres — Tokyo, Osaka, Kumamoto, and Hakodate. They were 
all communicants of good standing, and included all ordained 
missionaries, pastors, and licensed lay agents. A congregation of 
twenty persons could elect one Member, and of forty persons two 
Members, and so on, and congregations of less than twenty were 
allowed to combine in order to form the necessary number for a 
valid election. 



NOTES. 339 

It was, therefore, a thoroughly representative body ; its pro- 
ceedings were all carried on in Japanese, not in English, and the 
results of its work have already proved most valuable. It 
established a native Missionary Society, to be supported by funds 
sent in to a Central Board. It sanctioned a body of canons, 
relating to such matters as the admission of candidates to Holy 
Orders, Ordination, Bishops, unordained agents, discipline, local 
councils, consecrated buildings, etc. It accepted for the present 
the Prayer Book and Articles of the Church of England, but 
deferred to the future their exact position in the Church in 
Japan. 



Second Synod, 1889. 

The Second Synod was held at Tokyo , in April, 1889. It was 
opened with a Celebration of Holy Communion in the American 
Church, and the sermon was preached by Teresawa San, a 
Japanese deacon. The Bishop (Dr. E. Bickersteth) wrote 
regarding it : — " On the whole the work done was useful and 
practical. A great many changes, which it took a long time to 
discuss, were proposed in the Synod, but very few were accepted. 
A considerable time was spent in considering and adopting rules 
of order, which will be of use in later sessions. A very good 
report was handed in by a committee, on the salary of native 
pastors and agents, which is likely to be a standard of reference 
in this difficult matter for many years. It is just one of those 
questions in which it is most important to obtain an unbiased 
Japanese opinion. It would be difficult to do this without such 
an organization as the Synod. Generally, I hope that an impulse 
was given to not a few good works. The Japanese native 
Missionary Society has now four stations of its own — two in the 
neighbourhood of Tokyo, one in a western province, and one in 
Kiushiu. One of the duties of the Synod is to elect the central 
committee of the society. I cannot but hope this effort to elicit 
from the beginning the evangelistic energies of the Japanese 
Church may not prove fruitless ; that the disciples went every- 
where preaching the Gospel is part of our earliest record of Church 
history." 

z 2 



340 JAPAN AS WE SAW IT. 



Third Synod, 1801. 



The Third Synod was held at Osaka in April, 1891, and the 
Bishop said at the close of his opening speech : — " The prospect 
is one of solemn responsibility and of inspiring hopefulness. It 
is opened to us, too, at a time when, more than any other period, if 
a foreigner may rightly judge, through the progress of political 
organization, the country stands in need of a solid core and centre 
of thoughtful men, who recognize the obligations of righteous- 
ness, unselfishness, and philanthropy because they are implicated 
in their creed. It is not too much to say that representative 
government, if it is to be permanent, demands a religious people. 
If so — for other systems of belief are dying or dead — the future 
rests with the Church. . . . 

" For the Church of my baptism, I could see no greater grace. 
As individuals, we could ask no higher privilege than to have 
contributed, at a great crisis, to the establishment in this land of 
a branch of Christ's Holy Church, united by bonds of faith and 
affection only to its Western mother, apostolic in order and creed, 
a new home where souls are re-created into the image of God." 

In a letter to the Guild of S. Paul, written just after the 
Synod, he wrote : — " So far as I am aware, no other native Church 
in the East has so large a share of authority in its own hands as 
the little Church of Japan. Of course, there are safeguards, such 
as voting by orders and an episcopal veto, without which any such 
attempt as we are making would be rash in the extreme, as there 
is an extreme party in the Church which would welcome radical 
changes ; but the good sense of the majority of the delegates 
suffices, as a rule, to preserve us from dangerous experiments." 
" Nothing very great or striking was accomplished by one week 
of debate ; but, as far as I may judge, no mistakes were made. 
A good deal of useful information was circulated, which will go 
to form a healthy public opinion in the Church, and several not 
unimportant steps were taken, such as the formal adoption of the 
Ordinal, which, at our earlier meetings, had not been translated. 
Among them, perhaps, the most important is a proposed addition 
to the Prayer Boole of Services, for which it does not make 



NOTES. 341 

provision at present, such as missionary intercessions, the setting 
apart of catechists, the admission of catechumens." 

Note E.— ENGLISH TEACHING IN JAPANESE SCHOOLS. 

English was first introduced into Japanese schools about 
twenty-seven years ago, and taught side by side with Chinese. 
It did not supersede the study of Chinese, but reduced it to 
secondary importance. At one time it was taught in schools of 
every grade, but the instruction, being given as a rule by Japanese 
teachers, proved very unsatisfactory, and has now been discon- 
tinued in all elementary schools. When hopes of Treaty Revision 
and of free commerce with foreign nations were strong in Japan 
the Government gave great encouragement to the study of 
English ; but since the failure of Treaty Revision, and the 
difficulty above named of finding satisfactory teachers, public 
interest in its progress is much less keen. 

The knowledge of Chinese is essential to any Japanese student, 
because (a) all Japanese history, classics, etc., are written in Chinese 
characters, with only a mixture of Japanese characters called Kanas, 
and (£) all important words in this mixed language would be 
in Chinese. People might be easily misled as to the relative 
importance of Chinese and English teaching as now given in 
Japanese schools. A much greater amount of time is devoted 
to English, but this is only because the students would know 
Chinese from babyhood, and English would be quite a new study 
to them. — From Notes by the Rev. Imai Toshimichi. 



( 343 ) 



INDEX. 



Aden, 325 

Ainu, the savage tribes of the, 115 

Akaji, Lake on Mount, 62 

Akasaki, 242, 243 

Albanian Mountains, 326 

Aleutian Islands, 10 

Amado (wooden shutters), 304 

Ambler, Rev. C, 142 

American Church Mission in Japan, 

64, 113, 114, 115, 142, 236, 266, 

267, 291 
American Nonconformists in Nagoya, 

128, 206, 291 ; in Kyoto, 147 ; in 

Osaka, 160 
Amida- Buddha, images of, 270 
Amidado, temple of, 145 
Amoy, riots in, 314 
Andrews, Eev. W., 331 
Anti-foreign feeling in Japan, 39 
Arashiyama, 150 
Architecture, Japanese, 25, 26 ; at 

Haruna temple, 59 ; Tokyo College 

for, 102 
Arinia village, 250, 251 
Art, Japanese, in the last century, 

41; in the Ueno Museum, 79 
Art of flower arrangement in Japan, 

161, 184, 185 
Asano and Kira, story of, 34-37 
Ashinoyu, Mount, 120 
Aso San, a celebrated volcano, 276- 

278 



Atheism in Japan, 39, 108 

"At Home" at S. Hilda's House, 

73; at Mrs. Kirkes', 82, 83; at 

the American Church Mission, 

113 ; at Osaka, 163 
Atsuta, destruction by the earthquake 

at, 212, 213 
Austen, Rev. W. T., 331 
Autumn, a Japanese, 251 
Awaji Island, 244, 256 ; mission 

stations in, 114 
Azabu, district in Tokyo, 19 

Baldwin, Rev. J. M., 331 

Ballard, Miss, 333 

Bamboo work of Arima, 251 

Banff, a mountain village, 6, 7 

Barker, General, 314 

Barry, Bishop, 2 

Batchelor, Rev. J., 331 

Bazaar at Tokyo, 64-66 

Beds in Japan, 52, 53, 304, 307, 

308 
Bell, a famous, at Nara, 235 
Bickersteth, Right Rev. E. H. See 

.Exeter, Bishop of. 
Bickersteth, Right Rev. Edward. 

See Japan, Bishop of. 
Big Hell, a mountain gorge, 121 
Bill of fare at a Japanese hotel, 52 
Biuzuru, image of the god, 111 
Birkenhead, Miss, 249, 333 



344 



INDEX. 



Bishop Poole Memorial Girls' School, 

Osaka, 159-161, 170, 183 
Biwa Lake, 140, 150, 151 
Bleby, Rev. H. L., 331 
Boats of the Cantonese, 314, 315 
Bolton, Miss, 160, 170, 333 
" Boom," a, on Lake Huron, 5 
Booth, General, 325 
Bosanquet, Miss, 333 
Botanical Gardens at Hong Kong, 

314 ; at Singapore, 322 ; at Penang, 

323 
Boyd, Archdeacon, 324 
Brandram, Rev. J., 271, 273, 276- 

282, 303, 331 
Brandram, Mrs., 306 ; Miss, 333 
Breakwater, a curious, 45 
Brindisi, 326 
Briscoe, Captain, 325 
British Legation, Tokyo, 24, 112 
Broom merchant, a, 240 
Buddha, images of, 31, 278; in 

Ueno Park, 76-7 ( J ; at Nara, 232, 

235; at Kyoto, 153, 154, 235; 

at Canton, 317 
Buddhism in Japan, 33, 60, 61, 108, 

145, 287, 289, 328; influence of, 

39 ; taught in Tokyo University, 

103 ; in Nagoya, 127, 128 
Buddhist shrines and deities, 269, 

270 
Buddhist funerals in Japan, 293-302 
„ temples at Nara, 232, 235 ; 

in Kyoto, 261; at Kumamoto, 

273, 284-286 ; at Kandy, 324 
Buddhists, Hongwanji sect of, 145 ; 

Jodo sect of, 152, 153 
Buddhist ceremonial, a, 32, 33 

„ relics in the Ueno Museum, 

79, 80 
Buddhist emblem of immortality, 

142 
Bullock, Miss, 18, 333, 337 
Buncombe, Rev. W. P., 331 
Burdon, Bishop, and Mrs., 313 



Burial, rites of, in Japan, 61, 293- 

302 
Butsu. See Buddha. 
Butsudan (Buddhist shrines), 269 
Buxton, Rev. B. F., 331 ; Miss, 333 

Camelia trees, 303 

Canadian Church and Japan, 290 

Canadian Pacific Railway, 4-8 

Canton, visit to, 314-320 

Canton chairs, 56 

Cape Inobouye, 10 

Cariati, Prince and Princess, 68 

Carving, elaborate, at Nikko, 42, 45, 
94 

Castera (sponge cake), 270 

Castle, the, Tokyo, 24 ; at Nagoya, 
126, 131-135, 206, 272 ; at Osaka, 
162 ; at Ogaki, 191 ; at Fukuyama, 
239 ; at Kumamoto, 272-4, 283 

Catechumens at S. Hilda's Mission 
School, 90-92, 100 

Catholic Church in Japan, 109, 110 

Cemetery at Tokyo, 93; at Kyoto, 
142 

Ceremonial, a Buddhist, 32, 33 

Ceremonial Tea-Drinking, 84-87, 110, 
146, 162 

Chamberlain, Professor, Things Jap- 
anese, 95, 96 

Chapel at S. Hilda's House, Tokyo, 
20,39 

Chapman, Rev. G., 331 

Chappell, Rev. and Mrs., at Gifu, 140, 
200-202, 217, 242-3, 331, 332 

Characteristics of the Japanese, 109 

Cherry trees in Ueno Park, 76, 97 

Chikuzen, Princes of, 258 

Children in Japan, 213, 214 

Chimneys in Osaka, 167 

China visit to Canton, 314-320 

China and cloisonne shops at Nagoya, 
136, 137 

China pillows in Canton, 320 

Chion-in monastery, 152, 153 



INDEX. 



345 



•Cholmondeley, Rev. L. B., 16, 73, 
115, 331, 33G 

Chop-sticks, 105, 10(3 

Christian University, Kyoto, 147 
•Christianity in Japan, 108-110, 180, 
249, 250 

Christians, in Japan, 1596, 80; burial 
of, in Tokyo, 93 ; at Nagoya, 137- 
139. See also Missions. 

Church of England and Japan mis- 
sion work, 266, 267, 286-292 

Church, the, in Japan, 74, 109, 110, 
267; synod of the, 291; list of 
clergy and lay-workers of the, 331- 
33-4. See also Mission Stations. 

Church Missionary Society, and 
Japan, vi., 290; high school for 
boys at Osaka, 181-183 ; at Hong- 
Kong, 314 

Church of Rome and Japan, 266 
■ Church Synods in Japan, 291, 338- 
340 

Chusenji, lake and temple, 45 

" City of the Dead," the, at Canton, 
318, 319 

Cleanliness of the Japanese, 51, 
54 

Clergy and lay-workers of the Church 
in Japan, list of the, 331-335 

Clifton, Rev. H. G. Fiennes, 8 

Cloisonne-enamel shops at Nagoya, 
135-137 

Coiffure, Japanese, 248, 307 

College, Keiogijiku, Tokyo, 94-101 

Colombo, 324, 325 

Columbia River, 7 

Concession, the Foreign, at Osaka, 
159, 172; at Canton, 316 

Connaught, Duchess of, and S. Hildas 
Hospital, 22 

Consul's boat at Yokohama, 11 

Coplestone, Bishop and Mrs., 324 

Costume. Japanese national, 12, 13 

Country life in Japan, 55 

Cox, Miss, 333 



Creeds in Japan. See Buddhism, 

Shintoism. 
Crepe factory at Kyoto, 147 
Cryptomeria, avenues of, 41, 42, 59, 
121, 123, 152 
; Custom-house officers, 11 
| Czarevitch, the, at Otsu, 140, 150 

Daibutsu, the, 'a bronze figure of 

Buddha, 76-79 
Daimyos (feudal lords), of Japan, 29, 

30 
Dances, religious, at Nara, 232 
Deities represented in household 

shrines, 268-270 
Deshima, Island of, 320 
' Dickson, Professor, 102, 103 
Dinner, a Japanese, 104-107 
Dispensaries at Tokyo, 23, 24; at 
Kyobashi, 26-28 
, Divinity Schools at Tokyo, 74-76 ; 

at Osaka, 178 
I Dolphins, two, at Kumamoto, 135 
1 Doshisha, the Kyoto University, 147 
Dunn, Miss, 333 

| Earthquake in Japan, 1889, 272 
Earthquake shocks in Tokyo, 64, 

68 
Earthquake, the great, in Japan, 
166-178, 181-229, 236-7, 242, 
245-7, 250, 327 
Eastham, Mr., 177 
I East Hongwanji temple, 191 
! Edmunds, Miss, 333 
i Education at S. Hilda's Mission 
school, 87-92 
Emperor of Japan. See Mikado. 
Empress of Japan, s.s., 9-11 
Engineering, Tokyo, college for, 102, 

103 
England, news of earthquake in, 246, 

247 
English teaching in Japanese schools, 
340, 341 



346 



INDEX. 



Ensor, Eev. George, viii. 

European Governments and Japan, 
82 

Evangelistic work of the Missions, 
84 

Evington, Eev. H., 331 

Exeter, Bishop of, iii.-viii., 2, 9 ; 
and S. Hilda's Mission, 19; an 
address of welcome at S. Andrew's 
Divinity Schools, 37 ; address on 
" The Deity of Christ," 73 ; and 
Tokyo Cemetery, 93; at Yoko- 
hama, 107, 108 ; on leaving Tokyo, 
116 ; address by, at Nagoya, 128 ; 
at Osaka, 157-165 ; and the great 
earthquake, 167 ; and the Divinity 
School, Osaka, 178-181; address 
to Osaka Christians, 183 ; visit to 
Fukuyama Mission, 237-243; at 
Kobe, 245-250, 253 ; at Fukuoka, 
260, 261 ; at Oyamada, 268 ; at 
Kumamoto, 274, 282 ; visit to Aso 
San, 276-278 ; letter to The Times 
on Mission work in Japan, 286- 
292; at Nagasaki, 311 ; at Hong- 
Kong, 314 

Fair, a religious, in Tokyo, 26, 27 ; 

in Kyoto, 141 
Falls of Niagara, 3, 4 
Farmers, the middle class of Japan, 

100 
Fatshan, s.s., 314, 320 
Faucett, Miss, 333 
Feast, a grand, at Kumamoto, 276 
Flower arrangement in Japan, 161, 

184, 185 
Fire station in Japan, 38 
Fir trees in Japan, 42, 76, 121 ; a 

great, at Nagasaki, 311 
Fish, sacred, at Nara, 231 
Fishing-boats on lagoon on Hama- 

matsu, 126 ; on Lake Biwa, 151 ; 

on Inland Sea, 255 
Foreigners in Japan, 82 



Foss, Eev. H. J. and Mrs., 237, 241- 

254, 256, 331 
Frances, Sister, 8 
Eraser, Mr., British Minister at Tokyo, 

24, 112 
Freese, Eev. F. E., 16, 72, 73, 331 
Fuji, Mount, 116-119, 121, 122, 

125 
Fuji-ya Hotel, the, 116 
Fukuoka, arrival at, 257, 258; mission 

work at, 259-262, 295, 271, 300- 

302 
Fukuyama, Mission church at, 157,. 

158 ; visit to, 237-243 
Fukuzawa, Mr., college of, 74, 95- 

101 
Fuller, Eev. A. E., and Mrs., 309- 

312, 331 
Fumisita, or trampling-boards, 81 
Funerals in Japan, 293-302 
Fyson, Eev. P. K., 172, 178, 331 

Gardens of the Mikado's palace, 68- 

71 ; the Imperial, at Kyoto, 145,. 

146 
Gardner, Eev. C. G., 16, 73, 332,. 

336 
Gateways, ancient, in Tokyo, 24 
General Werder, s.s., 310-313 
Geyser on the side of Aso San, 278 
Gharry, a, at Singapore, 321, 322 
Giant, employed by General Ky omasa 

at Kumamoto, 273, 283 
Gifu, 140; earthquake at, 192, 193,. 

199-205, 209-221, 236, 250 
Ginza, the, of Tokyo, 67 
Glacier House, 7, 8 
Goddess of Mercy. See Kwannon. 
Gohei, the (strips of white paper)* 

42,59 
Gokaruku, the, 300 
Goodall, Mrs., 311, 333 
Gospel Propagation Society and 

Japan, 290 
Grace, Nurse, 17, 18, 20, 23, 27, 28,. 



INDEX. 



347 



84, 93 ; and the great earthquake, 
207-228 

Greek Cathedral at Tokyo, 15, 66 

Griffin, Dr., x. 

Grundy, Eev. J., 314-320 

Guild of S. Paul, 17, 290, 335; ac- 
count of the great earthquake sent 
to, 208-228 

Hairdeessing in Japan, 248 
Hakone, valley and lake of, 120-122 
Hall, Mr., Consul at Nagasaki, 311, 312 
Hamamatsu, lagoon near, 126 
Hamilton, Rev. H. T., 332 
Hamilton, Miss, 238, 333 
Hare, Bishop, 115 
Hartley, Miss, 333 
Haruna, lake, 61, 62 

„ valley, 56, 59 
Harvey, Mrs., 333 
Haswell, Captain, 254-256 
Hermit Range, the, 8 
Hideyoshi, a famous general, 87, 162 
Hind, Rev. J., at Fukuoka, 258-261, 

332 ; Mrs., 300-302 
Hiraningawa River, bridge over, 194- 

196 
Hoar, Miss, 333 
Hogan, Miss, 333 
Holland, Miss, 333 
Holy Charity Dispensary, Tokyo, the, 

23 24 
" Holy Mountain " of Tokyo, 72 
Home for Native Mission Women, 

Osaka, 161 
Hondo, Mission stations in, 114 
Hong-Kong, 313, 314, 321 
Hongwanji temple, 142-145 
Horse, the sacred, in Sensoji temple, 

111, 112 
Horse-shoe Falls, Niagara, 3, 4 
Hospital in Tokyo. See S. Hilda's. 
Hospital in connection with the Tokyo 

College of Medicine, 103, 104 
Hotel, a Japanese, 49-54 



Hot Springs at Ikao, 54 
House, furnishing of a Japanese, 50 
Howard, Dr., 6, 38 ; Miss, 333 
Howling Dog Promontory, 10 
Hughes, Mr. H. and Mrs", 253, 332 
Hunt, Miss, 333 
Huron Lake, 4 

Hutchinson, Rev. B., 262, 332 
Hyogo. See Kobe. 
Eyogo News, and the earthquake, 
174-178, 186-229 

Ibukiyama, 186 

Ichi-no-miya, village of, 205 

Iida, Rev. A., 72 

Ikai, the (tablet), 298, 299 

Ikao, mountain station, 54-62 

Images of Buddha in Ueno Park, 
76-79; at Kyoto, 153, 154; at 
Nara, 232, 235 ; at Kyoto, 235 

Images of the god Binzuru, 111 ; of 
the god Jizo, 120; of Kyomasa, 
285. See also Kivannon. 

Imai, Rev. J., 210, 216 ; and Japanese 
funerals, 293-302; and English 
teaching in Japanese schools, 340, 
341. See also Tosliimichi. 

Imao village, 223, 224 

Imperieuse, H.M.S., 310, 311 

Imperial gardens, Tokyo, 68-71 

Imperial University, Tokyo, 101-103 

Infidelity in Japan, 289 

Inlaid wood shops at Miyanoshita, 
119, 120, 251, 252 

Inland Sea of Japan, 162, 238, 243, 
254-256 

Inn, Japanese, at Taratama, 277 ; at 
Ureshino, 304--308 

Irwine, Rev. E. C, 107, 108, 332 

Islands, curious, in the Inland Sea, 
254-256 

Ito, Count, 30 ; Mrs., 21 

Iyemitsu, temples of, 46-49 

Iyeyasu, military ruler, temple of, 
41-49, 57, 76, 121 



348 



INDEX. 



Japan, Bishop in, 1, 2, 129 ; meeting 
with, at Banff, 6 ; house in Tokyo, 
16; address by, at Nagoya, 127, 
128; at Fukuyama, 237-243; at 
Kobe, 245-250; at Fukuoka 
259-261 ; at Oyamada, 264, 265 
visit to Aso San volcano, 276- 
278 ; mission work in Japan, 290 ; 
at the Japanese inn, Ureshino, 
307; missions at Tokyo, 336- 
338 ; Church Synods in Japan, 
338-340 
Japan, landing in, 11 ; costume, 12, 
13 ; customs, 17 ; hospitals, 23 ; 
houses, 27 ; police, 29, 30 ; fire 
station, 38 ; anti-foreign feeling in, 
39; peasants, 41; native hotel, 
49-54; shopping in, 68; marriage 
ceremony, 68 ; musical instru- 
ments, 73; schools, 87-92 ; photo- 
graphy, 93, 94; national charac- 
teristics, 109 ; the Church in, 109, 
110 ; Mission stations in, 114, 115 ; 
railways, 125 ; Council of State, 
147; floral arrangement in, 161, 
184, 185 ; music, 184 ; the great 
earthquake in, 166-229, 236-237, 
242, 245-247, 250; travelling in, 
210; children in, 213, 214; hair- 
dressing in, 248; trade in, 251, 
252 ; household shrines in, 268- 
' 270; " Old," 284 ; funerals in, 293- 
302; beds in, 307, 308; Mission 
work in, iii.-viii., 286-292, 327- 
329 ; list of clergy and lay-workers 
of the Church in, 331-335 ; Church 
synods in, 338-340. See also Art, 
Missions, Temples, &c. 
Japan Mission Fund, 96 
Japanese Church Synod, 235 
Japanese clergy in English missions, 

334 ; lay-workers, 335 
Japanese feast, a true, 104-107 
Jinriksha, ride in a, 12-26, 150, 151 
runners, 46, 278, 281 



Jizo, the god, 120 
Jodo sect of Buddhists, 152, 153 
Juggler, a Japanese, 83 
Julius, Miss, 238, 333 
Junks on the Inland Sea, 256; off 
Canton, 320 

Kaga (china ware), 137 

Kaga, daimyo of, 101 

Kagos (Japanese palanquins), 250- 
253 

Kamakura, image of Buddha at, 235 

Kamidana (household shrines), 268- 
270 

Kanda, district of, 101 

Kandy, visit to, 324 

Kannuslii (Shinto priest), 294-296 

Kasamutsu, 205 

Kato Ky omasa, General, 272, 273 

Katsuragawa Kiver, rapids of the, 
147 

Keep, the, at Nagoya Castle, 135 

Keiogijiku College and University, 
94-101 

Ken-Cho, the, at Gifu, 217 

Kerr, Dr., 320 

Kettles for spirits, 68 

Kicking-Horse Pass, 7 

Kindayu hotel, 56 

Kindergarten, S. Hilda's Mission 
school, 88, 89 

King, Eev. Armine F., 6, 25, 73, 332, 
336 

Kipling, Kudyard, 325 

Kira and Asano, story of, 34-37 

Kirkes, Mrs., 13, 38, 39, 66, 82 

Kirkwood, Mr. and Mrs., 68 

Kishinone San, 89 

Kiushiu Island, 114, 253-258, 274, 
282 

Kobe, visit to the treaty port of, 243- 
254, 311 ; mission at, 265 ; address- 
presented to the Bishop of Exeter 
at, 288, 289. See also Hyogo Neivs. 

Kobe Maru, s.s., 253-256 



INDEX. 



349 



Koto, a musical instrument, 73, 107, 

184 
Kotsuke, Province of, 301, 302 
Kozu, place called, 116, 125 
Kumamoto city, 135, 261, 268, 271- 

276, 281-286, 303 
Kumatsu, Prince, visit to Imao, 224, 

225 
Kunyam Hill, temples of, 318 
Kurume, city, 262, 264, 268, 270, 271 
Kwannon, the Goddess of Mercy, 31, 

270; temple of, 110-112; at 

Kyoto, 154, 155 
Kyobashi, dispensary at, 26-28 

„ Mission church, 71-72 
Kyomasa, General Kato, 135, 272, 

273 ; temple erected to, 284-286 
Kyomizudera temple, 153 
Kyoto, the ancient capital of Japan, 

139, 157 ; image of Buddha at, 235 ; 

temple at, 261 

Ladies' Institute, Tokyo, 30, 31 
Lagoon near Hamamatsu, 126 
Lake Akaji, 62 

„ Chusenji, 45 

„ Hakone, 120-122 

„ Haruna, 61, 62 

„ Huron, 4 

„ Superior, 6 
Lang, Rev. D. M., 332 
Language, the Japanese, 62 
Lantern-maker, a Chinese, 137 
Laurenti an Mountains, 3 
Lay-workers of the Church in Japan, 

list of, 331-334 
Lee, Captain, 9 
Leper village near Kumamoto, 284- 

286 
Library in Tokyo University, 102 
List of the clergy and lay-workers 

of the Church in Japan, 331-334 
Lloyd, Eev. A., 96, 101 
Lotus-flower, a Buddhist emblem, 

142 



Mc Alpine, Mr., 207 

Macllae, Miss, 30 

Madelev, W. F., 332 

Maebashi, 54, 55 

Malay houses at Singapore, 321, 322 

Manitoba, s.s., 5 

Marco Polo, figure of, at Canton,. 
317 

Marriage ceremony in Japan, 68 

Matsunaye San, 89 

Matsuri, a religious fair, 26, 27 

Maundrell, Archdeacon, 114, 332 

Memorial ceremonies in Japan, 301,. 
302 

Merchant, a, in the old days of 
Japan, 275 

Methods of S. Hilda's Mission school, 
88,89 

Mikado of Japan, the, 15 ; palace 
of, 24 ; gardens of, 68-71 ; state 
bullock-cart of, 79 ; at Nijo Castle, 
146; birthday of, 247, 248 

Mill at Osaka, wrecked by the earth- 
quake, 173-178 

Milne, Professor, 197 

Mineral springs at Miyanoshita, 116 

Mino, valley of, 163, 164 

Mission houses in Japan. See &. 
Andrew's; S. Hilda's. 

Mission work in Japan, 327-329; 
letter to The Times, 286-292; list 
of clergy and lay-workers, 331-335 

Missions in Japan, 114, 115, 207, 
265-267. See Fukuoha, Kyoto,. 
Nagasaki, Nagoya, Kobe, Kuma- 
moto, Kyobashi, Oyamadd, Osaka, 
Tokyo, Ushigome. 

Mission stations, Kusso-Greek, 66 

Mission schools for girls and boys, 
Kobe, 249, 253 

Mita, district of, 95, 101 

Miyanoshita, a hill station, 115-122- 

Moji, port of, 257 

Monastery at Kyoto, 152, 153 

Montreal, 3 



350 



INDEX. 



Moore, Eev. II., 73, 96, 100, 101, 

332, 336 
Morris, Rev. H. S., 332 
Moto Machi, street in Kobe, 247 
Mountains near Ikao, 56; Rokko 

San, 251, 252 
Mount Akaj; ? 62 

i„ Ashinoyu, 120 

„ Baker, 10 

„ Fuji, 116-119, 121, 122, 125 

„ Sir Donald, 8 
Museum, the Ueno, 76-82 
Musical instruments, 73 
Musicians, Japanese, 106, 107, 184 

N., Me., of the Japanese Church 

synod, 235, 236 
Nagahashi San, 89 
Nagaragawa River, bridge over, 195- 

199 
Nagasaki, 303, 309-312 
Nagata Cho, Mrs. Kirkes at, 38, 39, 

66,82 
Nagoya, city of, visit to, 126-139 ; 

plain of, 140; earthquake at, 194, 

205-218, 236, 237, 289 
Nakamura, Mr. and Mrs., 263, 264 
Nakasendo River, 199 
Naniwa, the, at Osaka, 174-178 
Nara, ancient Japanese capital, 230- 

237 
Nettleship, Mr. C, 332 
Niagara Falls, 3, 4 
Nicolai, Pere, 66 
Nijo Castle, Kyoto, 146 
Nikko, temples at, 31, 57, 121, 232 ; 

visit to, 41-49 ; wood-carving at, 

94 
Nippon Sei Ko Kwai, the, 109, 

110 
Nippon Yusen Kwaisha S.S. Line, 

253-6, 313 
Nirvana, the, of Indian Buddhism, 

300 
Nishi Hongwanji, 145 



Norito, a Japanese prayer, 294-296 
Nott, Miss, 271, 303, 333 ; and the 
lepers, 285, 286 

Clia No Yu, or Ceremonial Tea- 
drinking, 84-87, 110, 146, 162 

Odawara, Bay of, 116 ; plain of, 122 

O Fuda (oil-paper) of deities, 268- 
270 

Ogaki, 140 ; earthquake at, 188-192, 

. 200, 202, 236, 250 

Ogakikaido, the, 187 

Ojigoku, mountain gorge, 121 

Ojima, Dr., 209, 210 

Okazaki, 211 

Omiya, 54 

Omara, Gulf of, 308 

O Rii San, Nurse, 209, 224 

Osaka, 153, 236, 241-243; blocks of 
stone at, 131, 162; visit to, 157— 
165 ; earthquake at, 64, 166-183 ; 
Mission stations in, 114, 265 

Otsu, where the Czarevitch was 
attacked, 140, 150, 151 

Owari, the Princes of, 126, 135 

Oyamada, a Christian village, 261- 
268 

Pacific Ocean, the, 9, 10 

Pagodas, at Nikko, 41 ; at Canton, 
317 

Palace, the Mikado's, 15, 16, 24; 
gardens of, 68-71 

Palace, the Imperial, at Kyoto, 146 ; 
in grounds of Chion-in monas- 
tery, 153 

Palaces, at Nagoya, 132-135 ; at 
Osaka, 163 

Paradise, Buddhistic idea of, 299, 300 

Parisian, s.s., 2, 3, 8 

Park at Tokyo. See Ueno. 

Pappenberg, island of, 312 

Parrot, Mr., 332 

Payne, Miss, 333 

Pear trees. 63 



INDEX. 



351 



Peasants, Japanese, 41, 150 ; in the 

Northern Island, 257 
Penang, 322, 323 
Persecution of Christians in Japan, 

1596, 80, 81 
Persimmons, Japanese fruit, 276 
Peshavmr, P. & 0. s.s., 313-323 
Photography, Japanese, &c., 93, 94 
Pigeons, flock of sacred, 111 
Pig-tails, unknown in Japan, 242 ; 

in Canton, 315 
Pine tree, a remarkable, 151 
Plain, a fertile, in Japan, 41 
Pole, Rev. G. H., 332 
Police in Japan, 29, 30 
Poole Memorial Girls' School, Osaka, 

159, 160, 170, 183 
Port Said, 326 
Porter, Miss, 333 
Prayers in Chion-in monastery, 

152, 153 
Preaching-station, a, 33, 34 ; at 

Nagoya, 127, 128, 
Presbyterian Mission Hospital at 

Canton, 320 
Price, Rev. H. M. and Mrs., 182, 

332 

Quebec, 2, 3 

Railways, in Japan, 125 ; in Kiu- 

shiu, 257 
Railway lines, damaged by the 

earthquake, 193-196 
Railway tunnel on the way to Nara, 

230 
Rain in Japan, 159 
Rapids of the Katsuragawa, 147 
Red Sea, voyage through the, 325, 326 
Regatta at Kobe, 249 
Religious dances at Nara, 232 
Religious fairs in Tokyo, 26, 27 ; in 

Kyoto, 141 
Religious instruction in Japanese 

schools, 30 



Religious teaching in J3. Hilda's Mis- 
sion school, 90, 91 
Rice-fields in Japan, 41 ; harvest, 125, 

126 
lliddell, Miss, 271, 276, 282, 303, 

333 ; and the lepers, 295, 286 
Riots in China, 314 
Ritchie, Captain, 3 
Ritson, Miss, 333 
Robinson, Rev. and Mrs. Cooper, at 

Nagoya, 126-139, 206, 207, 332 
Rocks at Haruna, 56, 59 
Rocky Mountains, 6-8 
Rokko San Mountain, 251, 252 
Rome, Church of, and Japan, 266 
Roman Catholics at Canton, 316 
Ronins, graves of the forty-seven, 34- 

37 
Russo-Greek Mission in Japan, 66 
Ryde, Rev. L. F., 73, 96, 332, 336 

Saga, 303 

Sahahi, evergreen tree, 269, 295 

Sakamoto, temples at, 151-153 

S. Andrew's Church, Tokyo, 16, 17, 

37, 38 
S. Andrew's University Mission, 16, 

24, 84, 112, 290, 336; Divinity 

school of, 37, 73-76 
S. Hilda's Mission House and Home, 

Tokyo, 17-22, 290 ; an " At Home " 

at, 73 ; work of the, 83, 84, 87 ; 

hospital, 22-24; mission school, 

account of, 87-92, 337, 338. See 

also Grace, Nurse; Thornton, Miss, 

&c. 
S. Lawrence River, 2, 3 
S. Michael's church, Kobe, 245 
S. Paul's Guild. See Guild. 
Samisen, a musical instrument, 73 

107, 184 
Samurai, or two-sworded warrior, 29, 

33, 100, 107, 270 
Sampan (Japanese boat), 255, 256 
Sander, Miss, 333 



352 



INDEX. 



Sandzu Kiver, the, 297 
San-ju-gen-do temple, 154 
Satsuma rebellion, the, 272, 274 
Saulte Ste. Marie, 5 
Schools, in Tokyo, 15, 87-92 ; writing 

in Japanese, 160, 161 
Schools in Japan, English teaching 

in, 340, 341 
Scenery at Singapore, 323 
Sceptics in Japan, 289 
Screens in Japanese houses, 27, 54 ; 

rain-doors, 51 
Seamen's Chapel, Hong-Kong, 314 
Seamen's Mission, Yokohama, 108 
Seismology, Professor of, at Tokyo, 

208 
Sel kirks, range of the, 7, 8 
Sendai, the daimyo, 80, 81 
Sensoji, temple of, 110-112 
Seto mono (china ware), 137 
Shaw, Archdeacon, 37, 38, 71, 113, 

114, 323 
Shaw, Mrs., 83 
Shiba, a district of Tokyo, 16; 

temples and woods, 31-33 
Shimabara, 303 
Shimadzu, Count, 23 
Shimbashi Station, Tokyo, 13, 16 
ShimoDoseki Straits, 256 
Shinto shrines and temples, 42, 55, 

269, 287; at Haruna, 56, 60; at 

Nikko, 57 ; at Otsu, 151 ; at Nara, 

232-235 
Shinto funerals in Japan, 293-302 
Shintoism, creed of, 60, 61, 108, 328 
Shiota, village of, 188 
Shirlock, Miss, 333 
Shoguns, dynasty of, 31-33, 41, 76, 

82, 135, 146 
Shopping in Japan, 68 
Shops at Nagoya, 135-137; at Naga- 
saki, 310; in Canton, 320 
Shrines, household, in Japan, 268- 

270 
Silk districts in Japan, 55 



Silk factory at Kyoto, 147 
Silk-spinning, 263 
Singapore, 321, 322 
Smith, Sir Cecil, 322, 323 
Smoking, the Japanese and, 164 
Snowden, Miss, 17, 18, 333, 337;. 

and S. Hilda's Mission School,. 

87-92 
Sonogi, town of, 308, 309 
Sponge-cake, Japanese, 270 
Springs, hot, at Ikao, 54; mineral, 

at Miyanoshita, 116; Ojigoku,, 

sulphur, 121 
Stags, sacred, at Nara, 231 
Station at Gifu destroyed by the 

earthquake, 199 
Stone, blocks of, at Nagoya castle, 

131 ; at Osaka Castle, 131, 162 
Stone age, relics of, in Ueno Museum, 

79 
Stories re first railways in Japan, 

125 
Stove, a Japanese, 21 ; used in Tokyo,. 

167 
Straits of Malacca, 322 
Straw work of Arima, 251 
Streets of Tokyo, 26 ; and shops, 40 
Students, at Keiogijiku College, 99,. 

100 ; of the Imperial University,. 

101, 102 ; at Osaka, 178-181 
Suez, 326 

Sulphur springs, Ojigoku, 121 
Sumiyoshi, 250, 252 
Sunset over Mount Fuji, 122 
Superior, Lake, 6 
Superstitions in Japan, 299 ; Lake 

near Ikao, 61, 62 
Swann, Kev. C. T., 238, 239, 249, 

332 
Sword-making, art of, 107 
Synods, Church, in Japan, 291, 338- 

340 

Takasaki, town of, 62, 63 
Takasu, 221-226 



INDEX. 



353 



Tapson, Miss, 333 

Tarataina, village, 277 

Tarui, 186 

Tea, a Japanese, 184, 185 

Tea-drinking Ceremony in Japan, 84- 
87, 110, 146, 162 

Tea-house, a Japanese, 279 

Temples, in Japan, Shiba, 31-33 ; 
of the forty-seven Konins, 34-37 ; 
at Nikko, 41-49, 121 ; at Haruna, 
59, 60; at Tokyo, 72 ; of Sensoji, 
110-112; at Kyoto, 142-146, 
152, 153 ; at Sakamoto, 151-3 ; 
of the 33,333 Images of Kwannon, 
154, 155 ; near Osaka, 163, 164 ; 
at Shiota, 188; East Ho.ngwanji, 
191 ; at Gilu, 202-205 ; at Nara, 
231-235 ; erected to General 
Kyomasa, 273, 284-286; of the 
Five Hundred Genii, 316, 317; 
ou Kunyam Hill, 318 

Teetotalers, jinriksha men are strict, 
46 

Tennant, Miss, 333 

The Times, the Bishop of Exeter's 
letter to, 286-292 

Thompson, Miss, 333 

Thornton, Miss, 17, 18, 20, 22, 27, 
28, 83, 333, 337 ; and the great 
earthquake, 208-227 

Times, The, of Japan, 95, 96 

Titam-tuk reservoirs, 313 

Tohaido road, the, 116 

Tokitsu, 308, 309 

Tokugawa, the, 31 

Tokyo, arrival at, 13, 14 ; description 
of, 15, 16, 40; Mission work in, 
16-24; the Mikado's palace, 24; 
Ushigome, part of, 25 ; streets of, 
26, 40 ; temples in, 31-37 ; bazaar 
in, 64-66 ; bay of, 67, 72 ; central 
thoroughfare of, 67 ; park and 
museum, 76-82, 146 ; cemetery, 
93; Keiogijiku College, 94-101; 
University, 101-103 ; departure 



from, 115-116 ; compared with 
Kyoto, 141 ; earthquake shocks in, 
167, 208 ; relief for sufferers, 227- 
229; jinriksha runners in, 281 

Tokyo, the Bishop's Missions at. See 
8. Andrew's Mission; S. Hilda's 
Mission. 

Torii (curious Japanese arches), 152, 
231 

Toronto, 3, 4 

Tortoiseshell shops at Kobe, 251, 
310, 311 

Toshimichi, Kev. J. Imai, 39,-62, 90. 
See also Imai 

Towels presented to Japanese work- 
men, 240, 241 

Trades in a Chinese city, 319 

Training of Japanese women, 83, 84 

Trampling-boards, 81 

Travelling in Japan, 210 

Trees damaged by the earthquake, 
196 

Trinity College, Kandy, 324 

Tristram, Miss K., 159, 160, 170, 171, 
207, 223-225, 333 

Trotter, General, 323 

Tunnel, on the way to Nara, 230 

Typhoons, in the Pacific Ocean, 10 
at Nikko, 46, 49 ; off Hong-Kong, 
321 

Ueno, temples at, 31 ; station, 40 ; 

park and museum, 76-82 
Umbrella-maker's garden, 63 
Unitarians in Japan, 108 
University, the, Tokyo, 101-103 
Ureshino, town of, 303-308 
Ushigome, Mission church at, 25 
Utsunomiya, hotel at, 49-54 

Vahtta, P. & O. s.s., 324-326 

Valley of Nikko, 45 

Vancouver, 8 

Van Dyke, Mr. and Mrs., 207 

Vincent, Colonel and Mrs. Howard, 9 



2 A 



354 



INDEX. 



Volcano, Aso San, 27C-278 
Volcanic rocks in Haruna valley, 56, 
59 

Wallee, Kev. J. G., 332 

Walters, Mr. and Mrs., 9, 11 

Warren, Archdeacon, at Osaka, 114, 
157-165, 184, 332 ; visit to Fuku- 
yama, 237-243; house wrecked 
by the earthquake, 166-173 

Warren, the two Miss, 159, 169, 171 
„ , Eev. C. T., 332 

Washing in Japan, 305 

Wax trees, 257 

Weston, Rev. G., 244, 247, 332 

Whale-back boat, a, 5 

Wheler, Captain, 321 

Wigram, Eev. F. E., 181 

Williams, Bishop, 13, 64, 93, 115, 
334 

Williams, Rev. J., 332 

Women in Japan, 12, 13, 65 

Wood, Miss, 333 

Wood- carving shops at Haruna, 
62 



Wooden clogs worn by the Japanese, 

12,13 
Woods, the famous SMba, 31-33 
Wood-shops of Miyanoshita, 119-120 
Worden, Dr., 207 
Wounds, remedy for, in Japan, 222, 

223 
Wrestling match, a, 164 
Writing in Japanese schools, 160, .161 

Xavier, S. Francis, x., 80, 108, 
266 . 

Yaami's Hotel, Kyoto, 141, 157 

Yashiki (palace), a picturesque, 30 

Yedo. See Tokyo. 

Yezo, island of, Mission stations in, 
114, 115 

Yokohama, 9-12, 93, 94, 107, 108 

Yoshizawa, Rev. C. N., 90 

Y. M. C. A. formed by Tokyo Uni- 
versity students, 103 

Yumoto, 116, 125 ; plain of, 122 

Zen-shu sect of Buddhists, 297 






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